Comparing Text to Multimedia: Understanding How the Brain Changes | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G7:M4A:U1:L3

Comparing Text to Multimedia: Understanding How the Brain Changes

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can compare and contrast different media versions of informational text (written vs. audio vs. film vs. staged, etc.). (RI.7.7)
  • I can analyze impact of the techniques unique to each medium. (RI.7.7)
  • I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support an analysis of informational text. (RI.7.1)

Supporting Targets

  • I can compare a text-only version of "The Child's Developing Mind" to the multimedia version of that text.
  • I can analyze the impact of the techniques unique to text and multimedia.
  • I can analyze the main idea and supporting details in "Teens and Decision Making."

Ongoing Assessment

  • Neurologist's notebook #2 (from homework)
  • Neurologist's notebook #3
  • "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

A.  Entry Task: Self-Assessment (5 minutes)

B.  Adding to Anchor Chart (5 minutes)

2.  Work Time

A.  Analyzing Main Idea in "Teens and Decision Making" (15 minutes)

B.  Comparing Text to an Interactive Version of Text (19 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

A.  Previewing Homework (1 minute)

4.  Homework

A.  Read the end of the article "What You Should Know about Your Brain." Start at the section titled "The Limbic System: Your Emotional Core." Complete neurologist's notebook #4 only for the section "Dopamine: Feeling Good Makes You Learn."

  • Students return to the article "Teens and Decision Making" for the final time in this lesson. Continuing their learning around RI.7.1 and scaffolding toward SL. 7.2, they analyze the main idea and supporting details of this text by completing a neurologist's notebook entry. This is a difficult assignment, and time is given for students to amend and deepen their thinking. If you collect the neurologist's notebook entry today, be sure to have it ready to return in Lesson 4, as students will need it to complete the homework for that lesson.
  • This lesson opens with students self-assessing their ability to analyze the main idea and supporting details in their homework. Although students have worked with main idea throughout the year, this genre of scientific writing poses a unique challenge. All of the articles are divided by subheadings, and finding the common thread between them can be difficult. Students may need encouragement to think of the main idea as a large, summative statement that is general enough to encompass the subheadings but not so general that it is says nothing (e.g., "this is about the brain"). It needs to be just specific enough to capture what the article is really about and should be articulated in a statement--not just a phrase.
  • If students are struggling at this point, you may want to extend the Opening and do this lesson in two class periods instead of one. Both texts in Work Times A and B have plenty of material that could be extended. Alternatively, you could have students revisit the homework from Lesson 1 or Lesson 2 in pairs or triads. All of these texts are building the students' background knowledge of the physiology of the brain, and the subject is complex enough to warrant multiple reads.
  • During the Opening, students are introduced to the last column on the Brain Development anchor chart. This column will be stressed in the second half of Unit 1 and throughout Unit 2. Today is a brief introduction and an invitation for students to start making inferences about the implications of the brain research. When you add to the last column of the class chart, the lesson instructions prompt you to use an "if/then" construction. This is intentional. The students will be prompted to make "if/then" statements throughout Unit 1 and Unit 2. This will help students develop good reasoning for the position paper in Unit 3. Again, take more time if you wish, and be sure to let the anchor chart reflect the class discussion. The model is provided for your reference.
  • The second half of this lesson centers on RI. 7.7, which asks students to compare two versions of the same text. This will be new learning for many of the students and will be part of their mid-unit assessment in Lesson 5.
  • For homework tonight, students read the last half of an excellent article by Dr. Judy Willis. The students will be held accountable only for the dopamine section because it fits best with the focus of the module. The article is presented in its entirety because the other information and vocabulary is useful to know and provides a way for you to differentiate learning for your stronger students. You may assign it if you wish; however, information that is not in the dopamine section will not be emphasized.
  • In advance:

-   Review the upcoming Mid-Unit 1 Assessment to help shape the discussion in Work Time B.

-   Ready the interactive feature at: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/09/15/health/20080915-brain-development.html.

  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

compare, impact, abstract thinking, maturity, unrestrained

Materials

  • Self-assessment (one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Brain Development anchor chart--student version (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Informational Text Structure Map graphic organizer (from Lesson 1)
  • Informational Text Structure Map graphic organizer (model, for teacher reference; from Lesson 1)
  • Brain Development anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Model Brain Development anchor chart (for teacher reference)
  • Neurologist's notebook #3 (one per student)
  • Neurologist's notebook #3 (answers, for teacher reference)
  • "Teens and Decision Making: What Brain Science Reveals" (from Lesson 1)
  • "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia (one per student)
  • "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia (answers, for teacher reference)
  • "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia interactive feature (multimedia; http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/09/15/health/20080915-brain-development.html)
  • Interactive white board or computer screen/projector (to display interactive feature)
  • "What You Should Know about Your Brain" (one per student)
  • Neurologist's notebook #4 (one per student)
  • Neurologist's notebook #4 (answers, for teacher reference)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Entry Task: Self-Assessment (5 minutes)

  • Distribute the Self-assessment and instruct students to work on it individually.
  • After a few minutes, display a copy of the Self-assessment on a document camera. Ask students to raise their hand if they thought Version 1 was more successful at capturing the main idea. Repeat for Version 2.
  • Acknowledge that Version 1 was better. Briefly explain the strengths of Version 1 (the main idea is general and encompasses the whole article; the supporting idea/details summarize the main points) and the weaknesses of Version 2 (the main idea is too specific; the supporting idea/details are pieces of evidence and not a summary of a major idea).
  • Developing self-assessment and reflection supports all students, but research shows it supports struggling learners most.

B. Adding to the Anchor Chart (5 minutes)

  • Direct the students to retrieve their Brain Development anchor chart--student version from Lesson 2 and Informational Text Structure Map graphic organizer from Lesson 1.
  • Display the Informational Text Structure Map graphic organizer.Point out that the students have now read several conclusions. Ask:

*   "What did the conclusions of 'Teens and Decision Making' and 'What's Going On in Your Brain?' have in common?"

  • Briefly discuss the purpose of a conclusion. As needed, refer to the Informational Text Structure Map graphic organizer (model, for teacher reference) from Lesson 1 for guidance.
  • Point out that a conclusion often answers the questions "What does this information mean to me, the reader?" or "So what?" Display the Brain Development anchor chart that the class has been working on together. Point out the "So what?" column on the anchor chart.
  • Briefly model how to complete the last column of the class Brain Development anchor chart to support students in filling in their own anchor chart. Refer to the Model Brain Development anchor chart (for teacher reference) as needed.Your model may look like this:

-   Circle one of the pieces of information on the anchor chart that says the prefrontal cortex is the last to mature. Draw a line to the "So what?" column and write: "So if the PFC is not as efficient, then teens may make decisions without fully realizing long-term consequences. If they do that, then this can be good (they take daring risks) and bad (they take dangerous risks)."

-   Circle one of the pieces of information that says that synaptic pruning occurs based on the behavior of an individual, and draw a line to the "So what?" column. Write the phrase: "So if synapses are being pruned or strengthened by the activities that teens spend their time on, then teens can shape their brain. And if activities shape one's brain, then one should be mindful about the activities one is doing. As Dr. Willis says, 'Practice makes permanent.'"

  • Explain that students will encounter "if/then" phrases in their homework tonight and that they should pay special attention to what this means. (You may want to preview the homework at this time.)
  • Encourage students to start asking themselves, "So what?" as they learn more information about the brain.
  • Graphic organizers and recording forms engage students more actively and provide the necessary scaffolding that is especially critical for learners with lower levels of language proficiency and/or learning.

 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Analyzing Main Idea in "Teens and Decision Making" (15 minutes)

  • Distribute neurologist's notebook #3. Invite students to get out their copy of "Teens and Decision Making" (from Lesson 1) and briefly skim over the article. Remind them that this the third time they have interacted with this article.
  • Ask students to turn and talk with their partner:

*   "Now that you have read the entire article, try to sum it up in one sentence. What is the main idea?"

  • After a few minutes, call on pairs to share their ideas. Guide the class to understand that the main idea should be very general and encompass the entire article. Refer to neurologist's notebook #3 (answers, for teacher reference) as needed.
  • Direct the students to fill in the "brief background" box and four of the "supporting idea/details" boxes. Remind students to use the subheadings as a guide. Circulate to ensure that students' supporting details are valid. Use probing questions such as:

*   "How can you say that in one sentence?"

*   "What is the most important information from this section?"

*   "Does that match the subheading?"

  • After 5 minutes, direct the pairs to stand up, bring their neurologist's notebook entries with them, and form a group of four with another pair to discuss their ideas. Circulate to ensure that the supporting details are valid.
  • After a few minutes, tell the students to return to their seats.
  • Give them a few minutes to silently amend their neurologist's notebooks #3 as needed. You may wish to collect this to help you identify struggling students.
  • Giving students time to amend their original answers promotes deeper thinking and self-assessment.

B. Comparing Text to an Interactive Version of Text (19 minutes)

  • Distribute "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia to each student.
  • Ask a student to read the learning targets aloud.

*   "I can compare a text-only version of 'The Child's Developing Mind' to the multimedia version of that text."

*   "I can analyze the impact of the techniques unique to text and multimedia."

*   "I can analyze the main idea and supporting details in 'Teens and Decision Making.'"

  • Discuss the words compare and impact. Explain to students that they will be thinking about how different versions of the same text can deepen their learning about a subject.
  • Ask students to follow along as you read "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia aloud.
  • Pause after you have completed the reading and answer any questions about vocabulary. You may wish to point out abstract thinkingmaturity, and unrestrained.
  • Give students time to answer Questions 1 and 2 from "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia.
  • Ask students to turn and talk with a partner about their answers.
  • Invite the students to share out their ideas. Lead off by pointing out this text clearly answers the question "So what?" by linking brain maturity to behavior. Also point out that although the readings from the previous lessons clearly said that behavior can shape the brain, this text is saying that the brain also shapes behavior. Clearly the brain is a complex organ and many factors contribute to how it works. Refer to "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia (answers, for teacher reference) as needed.
  • After a few minutes, invite students to add to their original answers at the end of  'The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia.
  • Next project the "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia interactive feature using an interactive white board or computer screen/projector. You may find it here: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/09/15/health/20080915-brain-development.html.
  • Move the slider bar from 6 years old to 13 years old to 17 years old. Note for the students that the text is the same. Reread the text as it appears in the interactive feature.
  • Ask students to answer Questions 3-7 on "The Child's Developing Mind": Comparing Text to Multimedia.
  • After a few minutes, invite them to turn and talk with a partner about their ideas.
  • Invite them to share out their ideas. As you discuss how being able to visualize the information makes it easier to understand, point out that writers often try to help their readers visualize something by using metaphors. In "Teens and Decision Making," the prefrontal cortex was a "blinking red warning light." In "What's Going On in Your Brain?" the author compared the brain to a roadmap. And in "The Teen Brain--It's Just Not Grown Up Yet," myelin was compared to insulation on electric wires.
  • As time permits, feel free to explore this interactive feature.
  • Careful attention to learning targets throughout a lesson engages, supports, and holds students accountable for their learning. Consider revisiting learning targets throughout the lesson so that students can connect their learning with the activity they are working on.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Previewing Homework (1 minute)

  • Distribute "What You Should Know about Your Brain" and neurologist's notebook #4. Answer any clarifying questions.

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Read the end of the article "What You Should Know about Your Brain." Start at the section titled "The Limbic System: Your Emotional Core." Complete neurologist's notebook #4 only for the section "Dopamine: Feeling Good Makes You Learn." There is no vocabulary for this notebook entry but lots of rich vocabulary for you to learn on your own.
  • This homework is an opportunity to challenge your stronger students. Consider assigning them the entire article.

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