Forming Evidence-Based Claims: Should Lyddie Sign the Petition? | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G7:M2A:U1:L11

Forming Evidence-Based Claims: Should Lyddie Sign the Petition?

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support an analysis of literary text. (RL.7.1)
  • I can analyze the interaction of literary elements of a story or drama. (RL.7.3)
  • I can use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words or phrases. (L.7.4)
  • I can effectively engage in discussions with diverse partners about seventh-grade topics, texts, and issues. (SL.7.1)

Supporting Targets

  • I can cite specific textual evidence to support reasons why Lyddie should or should not sign the petition.
  • By engaging in a discussion with my partner, I can analyze several excerpts from Lyddie in order to deepen my understanding of Lyddie's decision.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Checking for Understanding entry task
  • Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizers

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.     Opening

A.  Entry Task: Checking for Understanding (5 minutes)

2.     Work Time

A.  Forming Evidence-Based Claims: Lyddie's Decision (28 minutes)

B.  Generating Reasons For and Against Signing the Petition: Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face (10 minutes)

3.     Closing and Assessment

A.  Previewing Homework (2 minutes)

4.     Homework

A.  Read Chapter 17 of Lyddie and complete Reader's Notes for Chapter 17.

  • In this lesson, students reread selected passages carefully to gather and analyze textual evidence about why Lyddie should or should not sign the petition. They record the textual evidence they find on the Odell Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizers (from Lesson 10; one for and one against signing the petition).
  • Students have the opportunity to talk through the evidence they might use--to orally practice the type of argument they will be making in their essay. This type of oral practice is essential in helping students write strong essays. When students can explain something coherently, they are much closer to writing that idea down in a coherent way.
  • The essay is also scaffolded by a class conversation in Lesson 12 that adds reasons for/against signing to the Lyddie's Decision anchor chart.
  • Notice that although students have several opportunities to talk through their ideas, the lessons do not call for them to select a position to argue until later. Students need the opportunity to weigh the evidence, and they will do more nuanced thinking about the evidence before they commit to (and are invested in defending) a particular position.
  • In advance: Students will read three excerpts in class today (of those listed on Lyddie's Decision: Passages to Reread chart in Lesson 10). Place students in pairs or small groups and direct each pair to begin with a particular excerpt. Near the end of work time, students will share their work, so it is important that not all groups begin with the same excerpt. Consider focusing more struggling readers on shorter excerpts. Students who need extra support (use the graphic organizers collected in Lesson 10 to determine who this might be) may benefit from working in a small group with you.
  • Review the Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizers that students turned in at the end of Lesson 10 to determine whole class or individual student needs for today's work.
  • Review selected passages that students will read closely today (see the list on Lyddie's Decision: Passages to Reread chart from Lesson 10); Lyddie, Chapters 16-17; Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol (see Appendix 1).
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

evidence, claim; boasted (118), stout (118), remand her to the asylum (118), doff (120), fortnight (120), distraught (124), begrudge (127), mind (127), thereafter (129), croon (129)

Materials

  • Checking for Understanding, Chapters 15-16 Entry Task (one per student)
  • Forming Evidence-based Claims graphic organizers (from Lesson 10; two per student: one about why Lyddie should sign the petition and one about why she should not)
  • Lyddie (book; one per student)
  • Lyddie Reader's Notes, Chapters 12-16 (from Lessons 9 and 10)
  • Lyddie's Decision: Passages to Reread chart (from Lesson 10, one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Lyddie's Decision anchor chart (from Lesson 10)
  • Quotes to Discuss (one to display)
  • Quote Sandwich Guide (one to display and one per student)
  • Lyddie Reader's Notes, Chapter 17 (one per student)
  • Lyddie Reader's Notes, Chapter 17, Teacher's Edition (for Teacher Reference)

Opening

Opening

A. Entry Task: Checking for Understanding (5 minutes)

  • Distribute Checking for Understanding, Chapter 11 entry task to students as they enter.
  • Direct students to complete the entry task individually. As they do so, circulate to check the Lyddie Reader's Notes, Chapter 11 for completion.
  • When students are done, call on several to share their answers to the Checking for Understanding entry task. Prompt them: "How did your Reader's Notes help you answer that question?"
  • Post the correct definitions of the words in the Reader's Dictionary and prompt students to correct their Reader's Notes as necessary.
  • Remind students that today they will continue to work on the learning target: "I can cite specific textual evidence to explain what working conditions were like in the mills and how they affected Lyddie." They will revisit the quotes they used in Lessons 6 and 7 to understand Lyddie's working conditions.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Forming Evidence-Based Claims: Lyddie's Decision (28 minutes)

  • Pass back the Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizers from Lesson 10 and give any whole class feedback. Tell students that in this lesson, they will use these graphic organizers to gather specific textual evidence about whether or not Lyddie should sign the petition. Their job right now is not to decide; it is to gather, consider, and weigh the evidence on both sides of the argument before deciding what claim they will defend.
  • Take this opportunity to point out to students that a single piece of evidence might go on both the "she should sign" and "she shouldn't sign" graphic organizers. Model with: "'Should you sign the petition, Betsy, they'll dismiss you' (91). This evidence could go on the 'Lyddie should not sign' graphic organizer, because it suggests that if she does sign, she'll be fired. However, it could also go on the 'Lyddie should sign' graphic organizer, because it shows that she works in a place where workers have so few rights they cannot even complain without being fired."
  • Display Lyddie's Decision: Passages to Reread chart and refer students to these pages in Lyddie.
  • Remind students of their work in Lessons 6-9, where they first discussed what a quote or excerpt related to working conditions meant and then analyzed it. They should follow a similar protocol in this work time: They should read the excerpt with their partner before they try to find evidence from it to add to their Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizers. Remind them that with partner reading:
  1. Partner A reads out loud for a few paragraphs.
  2. Partner B states the gist of those paragraphs.
  3. The two partners switch: For the next few paragraphs, Partner B reads out loud and Partner A states the gist.
  4. After partner reading the excerpt, add evidence to both Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizers.
  • Post a list on the board that puts pairs in one of three groups and directs each group to start with a particular excerpt. For example:

*   Group A: Start with the excerpt from pages 88-89.

*   Group B: Start with the excerpt from pages 98-101.

*   Group C: Start with the excerpt from pages 111-113.

  • Tell students that when they and their partner are done with one excerpt, they should continue to another one of their choosing. Remind students that they may find it helpful to refer to the Lyddie's Decision anchor chart they began in the last lesson.
  • As students work, circulate to listen in and probe. Remind students that a single excerpt may include both textual evidence in favor of signing the petition and textual evidence against signing it.
  • When 10 minutes remain, refocus whole class. Display the Quotes to Discuss and tell students to make sure they are ready to discuss the quote that is from the excerpt they started with. Give pairs several minutes to wrap up their work.
  • As you lead the debrief, display a copy of the graphic organizers and script answers. Prompt students to add to their organizers.
  • Starting with the first excerpt:

*   Read the quote on the Quotes to Discuss list from that excerpt.

*   Ask one pair that started with that excerpt to explain where they put that evidence and how they explained it.

*   Ask another pair to contribute one more piece of evidence from that excerpt, explain where they put it, and how they explained it.

  • Carefully select which excerpts which pairs are reading to make sure all students experience success and gather evidence for their essays. It is important that all students be successful with this lesson in order to be successful when writing their essays.
  • Consider posting the directions for partners to follow as they work.
  • Consider highlighting the most relevant sections of text for your most struggling readers.
  • The lesson calls for the Quotes to Discuss to be posted only after students have worked for a while, to avoid limiting their focus too early. If you have struggling readers or a struggling class, consider posting this list earlier in work time to provide more guidance.

B. Generating Reasons For and Against Signing the Petition: Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face (10 minutes)

  • Display and distribute the Quote Sandwich Guide. Read the paragraph at the top aloud. Explain that this is the structure that students will use to include quotes in their essays. It is also a very important part of supporting their argument. Point out the three parts of the quote sandwich and the sentence stems to help them introduce and explain their quotes to argue for and against Lyddie signing the petition.
  • Remind students of the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol: They will find a partner and stand back-to-back with him or her. They will hear a prompt and have a minute to think and then on cue will turn around and share their thinking. Remind them of the sound that will be their cue to stand back-to-back and then face-to-face.
  • Do the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol twice.

*   Look at your "why Lyddie should sign the petition" Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer. Find a piece of evidence that strongly suggests she should sign the petition. Use the quote sandwich to explain it.

*   Look at your "why Lyddie should not sign the petition" Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer. Find a piece of evidence that strongly suggests she should not sign the petition. Use the quote sandwich to explain it.

  • Circulate to listen in and notice where students are strong and where they are struggling. Consider keeping a list of students who are not able to do this so that you can provide them with additional support in Lesson 12.
  • Congratulate students on their careful thinking about the evidence, and remind them that strong writers carefully consider all evidence before they make a claim. Tell them that the claims they eventually make will be much stronger because they have taken such care in thinking about the evidence.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Previewing Homework (2 minutes)

  • Remind students to read Chapter 17 of Lyddie and complete the Reader's Notes for homework. As they read, they should continue to notice evidence related to Lyddie's decision about signing the petition.
  • Collect the Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizers and use them to determine which students might need additional support in the next lesson.

Homework

Homework
  • Read Chapter 17 of Lyddie and complete Lyddie Reader's Notes, Chapter 17

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