Establishing Structures for Reading: Gathering Evidence about Salva’s and Nya’s Points of View (Reread Chapters 1 and 2) | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G7:M1:U1:L4

Establishing Structures for Reading: Gathering Evidence about Salva’s and Nya’s Points of View (Reread Chapters 1 and 2)

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support an analysis of literary text. (RL.7.1)
  • I can analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of characters in a literary text. (RL.7.6)

Supporting Targets

  • I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support my analysis of Nya's and Salva's character in A Long Walk to Water.
  • I can analyze how Linda Sue Park develops and contrasts the points of view of Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Gathering Evidence graphic organizer (focus on Character Development)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

A. Introducing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2.  Work Time

A. Engaging the Reader: Sharing Gist from Chapter 2 Reader's Notes (15 minutes)

B. Discussing Character Points of View: Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face Protocol (20 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

A. Revisit Learning Targets and Exit Ticket (5 minutes)

4.  Homework

Reread Chapter 2 and keep adding to Columns 3 and 5 of your Reader's Notes. 

  • This lesson introduces students to one of the module Guiding Questions, which will help focus their work throughout the module. Preview Part A of Work Time carefully in advance, and think of specific examples to illustrate the concepts of culture, time, and place that will resonate with your specific student population. General models are offered as a guide. Be prepared to offer these examples, or your own more specific ones, as models if students struggle with these abstract concepts. 
  • In this lesson, students practice gathering evidence from the text to support their understanding of character point of view in A Long Walk to Water. This involves rereading and additional practice to support the process of close reading.
  • This lesson includes explicit instruction about inferring, which is the heart of the work students will be doing with the graphic organizer as they continue to work through the novel. Review Part C of Work Time carefully. Note that basic comprehension of this text may not seem difficult for all students. But the concepts linked to the guiding question are sophisticated.  Push students on the analysis.
  • Along with the continued use of Reader's Notes to capture the gist of the story in a first read of each chapter, students begin to use the Gathering Evidence graphic organizer to capture their notes as they reread. Note that the thinking behind this Gathering Evidence graphic organizer is the crux of this unit. This lesson includes modeling and guided practice. Gauge your students' progress carefully, and feel free to continue with more guided practice as needed. It is imperative to lay a strong foundation in this lesson, since students' reading, thinking, and writing for the rest of the unit is based on their ability to make inferences and analyze text. 
  • Emphasize to students the importance of keeping these notes. At the end of Unit 2, students will refer to both their Reader's Notes and their Gathering Evidence graphic organizer when they write a Literary Analysis. And in Unit 3, students will again use these notes when they write a Two-Voice Poem. Note that this lesson includes two versions of this graphic organizer: a "less scaffolded" version for most students, and a "more scaffolded" version for students who may need additional support. 
  • In advance: Prepare a large visual chart with the unit Guiding Question written clearly and posted in the room.
  • Students again add to the "Things Close Readers Do" anchor chart--today's focus: rereading, gathering evidence, and paying attention to vocabulary.

Vocabulary

cite, text-based evidence, analysis, culture, time, place, influence, development, identity, detail/evidence, reasoning, inference, infer; flicking (2), droned (2), herding, grazing (3), aimless, halted (4), backfiring (5), bush, rebels (6), scattered, scrambled (7), hesitated (11), scurried, protested, objected (12) (review from Lessons 1-3)

Materials

  • A Long Walk to Water (book; one per student)
  • Gathering Evidence graphic organizer for Character Development (for Chapters 1 and 2; one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Partner Talk Expectations achor chart (from Lesson 1)
  • Things Close Readers Do anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; see additions in supporting materials)--today's focus: "reread the text" and "gather evidence (quotes) from the text"

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Introducing Learning Targets (5 minutes)  

Share the learning targets:

* "I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support my analysis of Nya's and Salva's character in A Long Walk to Water."

* "I can analyze how Linda Sue Park develops and contrasts the points of view of Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water."

Tell students that they'll be focused on the first learning target (citing text-based evidence) today. Ask students to Think-Pair-Share about the meaning of the word citing. Have pairs share their ideas about what this word means. If necessary, clarify that citing evidence means identifying information in the text that supports our understanding, and using that evidence to explain our ideas. In order to cite text-based evidence, they will need to reread the text. Point out to students that strong readers almost always reread to understand a text more fully. They will be practicing this a lot this year.

Ask students to focus on the term evidence in the learning target. Prompt students to Think-Pair-Share about what evidence means and to give examples of evidence (they may use ideas from science class or the natural world, but listen for ideas about evidence that readers use from text). Tell students that when we read, quotes from the text and details from the text are types of evidence that help us make meaning.

Arrange students in an alternate seating assignment today so that they are partnered in new partner pairs ("B-Day" seating--see Teaching Notes in Lesson 1). Remind students that they'll practice our Partner Talk Expectations with these new partners so that they can share ideas with different classmates.

  • When introducing the day's learning targets, give specific attention to the term evidence. When introducing the Gathering Evidence graphic organizer, give additional attention to the term inference. These two terms, evidence and inference, are foundational academic vocabulary terms that students will continue to reference in close reading and evidence-based writing.
  • Students will practice these same two learning targets in the upcoming lessons, and be assessed on these learning targets in the Mid-Unit 1 Assessment in Lesson 8.
  • In Lessons 1 through 3, students worked with one partner in an "A-Day" seating arrangement. Today's lesson introduces students to a new partnership in a "B-Day" seating assignment. Asking students to work with new partners helps to build a class culture in which students can collaborate effectively within a variety of student groupings. Rearranging seating assignments can cause anxiety for some students, so be attentive to class culture and consider communicating with some students ahead of time.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Framing the Guiding Question (10 minutes)

  • Read aloud the unit Guiding Question, "How do culture, time, and place influence the development of identity?" Underline the terms "culture, time, and place." 
  • Tell students that these words may seem familiar to them, but it is important to spend time to be sure they really understand these concepts as they relate specifically to this novel and the module. Reinforce the importance of building vocabulary. 
  • Tell students that culture is related to the beliefs and lifestyles that a particular group of people practice. Ask students to turn to a partner and brainstorm,

* "What are examples of how someone's culture shapes their identity?" 

  • Cold call two students to share out. If needed, model (preferably in ways that are relevant to your specific student population). A basic model might sound like this: "My culture is Jewish, even though I'm not super-religious. My family celebrates important Jewish holidays like Passover, which is a celebration of freedom for all people. Being part of Jewish culture has helped me really think about how grateful I am to be free." 
  • Tell students that time here refers to the specific period in which someone lives (ex. the 1980s for Salva's story, versus present day for your students). Point out that in this context, the word time has a precise meaning that is different from how students generally think about time on the clock or a time of day. Ask students to turn to a partner and brainstorm,

* "What are two examples of how the time period in which someone lives shapes their identity?"  

  • Cold call two students to share out. If needed, model (preferably in ways that are relevant to your specific student population). A basic model might sound like this: "A good friend of mine grew up in the 1970s, when women in this country were starting to push to be more equal with men. She was the first girl in her family to go to college, and then she got a big job in real estate. The fact that she grew up in the 1970s really affected her identity: she got to learn and try things that her mom never got to do in the 1950s."
  • Tell students that place as it is used here refers to the geographic location in which someone lives, and may include things like weather and climate, access to resources, etc. (Point out that in this context, the word place is more specific than just "a spot.") Ask students to turn to a partner and brainstorm,

* "What is one example of how the physical place in which someone lives shapes their identity?"  

  • Cold call two students to share out. Model as needed (preferably in ways that are relevant to your specific student population). A basic model might sound like this: "I grew up in a rural part of the state, with lots of my family nearby. My sisters and I worked together on the farm taking care of the animals. Because of this, I am someone who really values family, even though now I live far away from them."
  • Reread the unit Guiding Question aloud and explain to students that they will keep thinking about this complex question as they learn more about Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water.
  • Guiding Questions provide motivation for student engagement in the topic, and give a purpose to reading a text closely. 
  • Take time to carefully review and model the graphic organizer for Gathering Evidence. For students in need of additional support with the practice of gathering evidence, a more scaffolded version of the graphic organizer is included at the end of the lesson materials in which the text has already been selected, and students can focus on their inferences/reasoning about the textual evidence. 

B. Guided Practice: Gathering Evidence and Inferring about Character in Chapters 1 and 2 (25 minutes)

  • Distribute the Gathering Evidence graphic organizer to each student and project it on a document camera (or make a chart of it on chart paper or on your board). Ask students to silently read the directions on the graphic organizer and complete the tasks that the prompts indicate.
  • Tell students that the first column, titled "Detail/Evidence," is where they will gather quotes from the text. Make a connection to this column and the learning target about citing evidence. The third column, titled "Inference/Reasoning," is where they will right their ideas about how the text is related to the Guiding Question. 
  • Ask students to focus on the terms reasoning and inference in the graphic organizer. Prompt students to Think-Pair-Share:

* "What does it mean to infer?" 

  • Tell students that when we read for evidence about a specific question, we make meaning of the words in the text as they relate back to this question. Often this means we have to connect something in the text with some information from other parts of the text, or from our background knowledge. The meaning that we make is often in the form of an inference. 
  • Give a concrete example: "When we looked at the map (in Lesson 1), we noticed a dotted line. Then we looked at the key in the map and saw the word "route." We put those two things together to infer that this novel would be about a journey. And the title of the novel, A Long Walk to Water, helped confirm that inference, since it had the words 'long walk' in it." 
  • Ask students to open A Long Walk to Water to page 2, near the beginning of Chapter 1. Read aloud the first two paragraphs on the page, ending with the line, "...which was why he was letting his mind wander down the road ahead of his body." 
  • Focus students on the Gathering Evidence graphic organizer, specifically row 1: "Salva had three brothers and two sisters. As each boy reached the age of about ten years, he was sent off to school."  Ask students to turn to a partner and discuss the following question:

* "Based on the example in the first row of the graphic organizer, how do you think the cited evidence from the text supports the inference?"

  • Cold call a few pairs to share their thinking. Then clarify this example by thinking aloud for students. For example, you might say something like the following: "When I read, 'As each boy reached the age of about ten years, he was sent off to school,' I reasoned that it was a special privilege to go to school. I inferred that Salva felt grateful and takes school seriously."
  • Repeat with the second row. Point out to students that this time, the right-hand column is only partially completed for them. Ask them to think, then turn and talk with a partner about how they might finish the sentence "This affects his identity..."
  • Cold call a student to share his or her thinking. Listen for students to say something like "... Because he has to run away from the fighting, and be on his own, not with his family." 
  • Probe if needed, to help students make the direct connection between the text and the concepts in the Guiding Question: 

* "How did the time period when Salva grew up affect who he is?"

  • If necessary, model this for students, making it clear how you connect the quote to time and identity.
  • Repeat with the third row, with the quotation about Nya. Again give students an opportunity to think, talk with a partner, and share out. Listen for comments like "The place where Nya lives is very hot and dry. She has to walk a long way every day. So she probably is very patient." 
  • Probe if needed,

* "How did where Nya lives affect who she is?"

  • If necessary, continue modeling, again emphasizing the connection between the text and the Guiding Question--in this instance, how place influenced identity. 
  • Then tell students that now you will read aloud from the remainder of Chapter 1 (which students have already read at least once). Tell students that you will pause along the way so they can add their thinking to the Gathering Evidence graphic organizer. Tell students to not put any mark in the final (right-hand) column of the graphic organizer. They will return to these charts later as they develop ideas in writing.
  • Begin at the start of Chapter 1. After each of the chunks indicated below, prompt students to share their evidence and inferences with partners or have them share with whole class using cold call. 

* Chunk 1: Nya's story (page 1; corresponds to row 3 on the graphic organizer)

* Chunk 2: Salva's story (page 1 "Southern Sudan 1985" through page 4 "...but, oh, how delicious those bites were!"; corresponds with row 4 on the more scaffolded version of the graphic organizer))

* Chunk 3: Salva's story, cont. (page 4 "Salva swallowed and turned his eyes back..." through page 6 "Go! All of you, now!")

* Chunk 4: Salva's story, cont. (page 6 "The war had started..." through end of the chapter "Away from home.")

Note: gauge your students' thinking carefully. As needed, provide additional modeling through this guided practice time.

  • Next, focus students on Chapter 2. Tell them that they may focus on either Nya or Salva. Ask them to reread at least one page of Chapter 2, and add at least one more piece of evidence and reasoning on the Gathering Evidence graphic organizer without help from others. Encourage them. Tell them that it is important for each of them to complete at least one row on the graphic organizer independently so that you have individual information from each student.
  • As time permits, have students continue to read through the end of Chapter 2 (pg. 8-13) and add to the Gathering Evidence graphic organizer. 
  • During this time, circulate among students to monitor their progress and offer support. Give specific positive feedback when you see students making inferences based on the text (e.g., "I see that you really put x and y together to come up with that inference"). Commend students who are beginning to include key vocabulary words they have been exposed to. 
  • Preview the homework: Tell students that they should finish their first reading of Chapter 3 for tonight's homework, including reading for the gist in their Reader's Notes. They should also start paying attention to specific words in the text that they don't know, or words they think are particularly important to help them understand Nya's and Salva's points of view.
  • Tell them that in the next lesson, they will continue to practice gathering and analyzing evidence from the text.
  • Gauge your students' progress carefully, and feel free to continue with more guided practice as needed to support students who are struggling to gather and analyze evidence from the text.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Revisit Learning Targets with Exit Ticket (5 minutes)

  • Reread the learning targets

* "I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support my analysis of Nya and Salva's character in A Long Walk to Water."

* "I can analyze how Linda Sue Park develops and contrasts the points of view of Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water."

  • Explain to students that since they are making progress towards these targets they likely have some more strategies to add to the Things Close Readers Do anchor chart. Ask students if they experienced any new practices or strategies today that can be added to the list on the chart. Add a line to the anchor chart about re-reading and another line about gathering evidence.
  • For today's exit ticket, prompt students to circle one row on their Gathering Evidence graphic organizers that they think best exemplifies their ability to analyze how Linda Sue Park develops and contrasts the Nya and Salva's points of view. 
  • Ask students to then write on the graphic organizer an explanation of why they selected this evidence. 
  • Collect all Gathering Evidence graphic organizers for review and feedback.
  • For the day's exit ticket, students may benefit from sentence starters for the reflective portion of the prompt. Post sentence starters like, "I think this example shows my abilities to cite evidence because..." or "I selected this evidence because it tells me ____ about the characters in the book."

Homework

HomeworkMeeting Students' Needs
  • Read Chapter 3 for gist and record in Columns 1, 2, and 4 in Reader's Notes.

Note: From the exit tickets, select two examples that you feel strongly meet the learning target "I can analyze how Linda Sue Park develops and contrasts the points of view of Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water." The strong examples should show good citations of evidence (clear details/evidence in the form of quotes) that support rich analysis (relevant and clear inferences/reasoning). 

Select and rewrite these examples ahead of time for display on the document projector or large chart paper. Rewrite these examples without any characteristics that would identify the students, who may feel shy even sharing strong work. Be sure to ask students' permission to share their strong work.

Also create your own example of a response that is weak and does not yet meet the target (e.g., no evidence, unclear reasoning). In the Opening of Lesson 5, you can present this collection of examples so students can see what it looks like to meet the learning target. 

Another approach is to use examples from students in another class (without identifying characteristics).

The collected Gathering Evidence graphic organizers are great tools in which the teacher can give individualized feedback to each student about his or her progress on the learning target "I can cite several pieces of text-based evidence to support my analysis of Nya's and Salva's character in A Long Walk to Water." Lesson 5 begins with the teacher sharing some examples of student work from these graphic organizers.

  • Tonight's homework sets students up to repeat the processes of close reading that they've practiced so far. In Lesson 5, students will review their Reader's Notes for the gist of Chapter 3, then reread the chapter to Gather Evidence about character and respond to teacher prompts to justify their reasoning.

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