Inferring about Character: Analyzing and Discussing Points of View (Chapter 2) | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G7:M1:U1:L3

Inferring about Character: Analyzing and Discussing Points of View (Chapter 2)

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can determine the central ideas of a literary text. (RL.7.2)
  • I can analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of characters in a literary text. (RL.7.6)
  • I can effectively engage in discussions with diverse partners about seventh-grade topics, texts, and issues. (SL.7.1)

Supporting Targets

  • I can determine the central ideas of Chapter 2 of A Long Walk to Water.
  • I can analyze how the author, Linda Sue Park, develops and contrasts the points of view of Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water.
  • I can effectively engage in discussions with my classmates about our reading of A Long Walk to Water.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Reader's Notes 
  • Exit ticket

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

A. Introducing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2.  Work Time

A. Engaging the Reader: Sharing Gist from Chapter 2 Reader's Notes (15 minutes)

B. Discussing Character Points of View: Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face Protocol (20 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

A. Revisit Learning Targets and Exit Ticket (5 minutes)

4.  Homework

Reread Chapter 2 and keep adding to Columns 3 and 5 of your Reader's Notes. 

  • In this lesson, students continue to practice "getting the gist" through continued use of the Reader's Notes and an additional discussion activity. This helps to prepare students for the upcoming shift in focus (in Lesson 4) to the guiding question for the unit and the skill of gathering and analyzing evidence from the text. It is fine if students just understand the basic plot at this point. 
  • As in Lesson 2, when students share their "gist" notes, and during the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face discussions, continue informally to focus on key vocabulary. This models for students, and begins to sensitize them to, how to focus on specific words, which is introduced more formally in future lessons.
  • The discussion activity (using the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol) attends to two aspects of the lesson. First, it introduces the types of text-dependent questions students should be able to answer as they build their practices of close reading. Second, it emphasizes the importance of a collaborative and cooperative classroom culture so that students can make progress with effectively engaging in discussions with peers.
  • Use of the learning target about effectively engaging in discussions with peers, and attention to the use of protocols like Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face, help to launch the module with high expectations for classroom culture. Many teachers already have a strong repertoire of practices to support effective collaboration in the classroom; attention to class culture in this lesson can enhance those practices.
  • The question prompts for the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol in this lesson encourage students to pay attention to the details in the text. This more low-stakes oral activity is a preview of more rigorous work of written responses to text-dependent questions, to come in Lesson 4. At the end of the lesson, the teacher takes notes, charting students' responses. Time is not allocated for students to take detailed notes; in Lesson 4, students are introduced to a specific structure for taking notes when analyzing the text. 
  • In advance: Review Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol (Appendix 1).

Vocabulary

analyze, develop, contrast, points of view, characters, determine, central ideas, text features; wander (4), littered (8), rebels (10), hesitate (11), scurry, protested, objected (12)

Materials

  • Reader's Notes (begun in Lesson 1)
  • A Long Walk to Water (book; one per student)
  • Partner Talk Expectations achor chart (from Lesson 1)
  • Things Close Reader's Do anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)--today's focus: "using the text to answer questions"
  • Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face prompts (one to project on document camera or post on chart)
  • Chart paper to record student responses to Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face prompts (one piece; See Work Time B)
  • Document camera
  • Exit ticket (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Introducing Learning Targets (5 minutes)  

  • Read the day's learning targets:

* "I can determine the central ideas of Chapter 2 of A Long Walk to Water."

* "I can analyze how the author, Linda Sue Park, develops and contrasts the points of view of Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water."

* "I can effectively engage in discussions with my classmates about our reading of A Long Walk to Water."

  • Tell students that their Reader's Notes act as evidence for their progress with the learning target "I can determine the central ideas of Chapter 2 of A Long Walk to Water." 
  • Explain that the learning target "I can analyze how the author, Linda Sue Park, develops and contrasts the points of view of Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water" is going to be very important for their study of the people of South Sudan. This means that they will be working deeply with this target, and developing new strategies as readers to meet this target. 
  • Prompt students to Think-Pair-Share about what this learning target means. Remind them to look for key words and think about their meaning as attempt to determine the target's meaning. Focus on the phrase point of view, and define this as a character's perspective, position, or experience. 
  • Make clear that in this novel, there are two main characters: they are both from Southern Sudan, but each have their own experiences. Ask students to discuss the following: "What do you expect to be doing as readers in order to meet this learning target?"  Listen for students to say things like "pay attention to Nya and Salva" or "think about how Nya and Salva are the same or different."  Emphasize that students this target will be a central focus for not just this unit, but the entire module. 
  • Point out that they've been practicing the final learning target during Lessons 1 and 2, but today's work emphasizes how important it will be for every person in the class to develop skills to more effectively engage in discussions about the text. Explain that they'll be using the text to guide their discussions.
  • Checking in with learning targets helps students self-assess their learning. This research-based strategy supports struggling learners most.
  • Taking time to break down the meaning of vocabulary terms used in learning targets builds all students' access to academic vocabulary. For every Opening section, consider building time for "Introducing Learning Targets," in which students have time to make meaning of the academic vocabulary embedded within learning targets.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Sharing Gist from Chapter 2 Reader's Notes (15 minutes) 

  • Prompt students to take out A Long Walk to Water, the signed Letter to Families, and the Reader's Notes with Chapter 2 homework complete. Collect the signed copies of the Letter to Families and communicate expectations for any students without work completed.
  • Remind students that last night they were able to think about the gist of Chapter 2. Revisit the focus on text features from Lesson 1, asking students the date of each section of the chapter. Clarify as needed: be sure students recognize that the first section was about Nya, and the longer section was about Salva. 
  • Focus students on Nya's and Salva's stories in Chapter 2, for which they should have written their notes in Columns 2 and 4, respectively, of the Reader's Notes. Tell students that at this point, it is fine if they just got the gist of Chapter 2; they will return to this chapter in future lessons. 
  • Ask students to turn to their same "A Day" partner to read to each other what each one of them wrote in Columns 2 and 4. (Think-Pair...)
  • Remind students that now they'll "Share" so that they can help each other make sense of the text. Cold call three students to share what their partner wrote for Columns 2 and 4. 
  • After these three students share, give feedback so that all students have the following "gist" statements in their Reader's Notes. As you paraphrase students' statements, continue modeling the use of specific vocabulary from the text (this lays the groundwork for future lessons). 

* Nya dug a thorn out of her foot (thorns are littered, or scattered, everywhere one the ground). 

* Salva walks with a group away from his village, wondering about his family. 

* Salva encounters the rebels ("those who were fighting against the government").

* Salva tries to join the group of men (he hesitated, then "took a few steps"). 

* The rebels tell Salva to join the women and children (he scurried over to the women's side).

* Rebel soldiers take the men from the group, and hurt them (one man protested and got hit with a gun; then no one else objected). 

  • Clarify key vocabulary listed in parentheses above. Prompt all students to add to Columns 3 and 5 any new ideas about what Chapter 2 was about. Tell them that their homework will be to continue adding to these columns; it is fine if they aren't finished. 
  • Support a school-wide expectation that all assigned homework is relevant, realistic, and necessary. Collaborate with colleagues to establish a balance of assigned homework that takes into account students' additional responsibilities outside of school, and their family's availability to support independent work. With these parameters in place, hold the expectation that all students complete all assigned homework, and quickly communicate with home and school support staff if a student is not completing this essential independent work.
  • Research indicates that cold calling improves student engagement and critical thinking. Be sure to prepare students for this strategy by discussing the purpose, giving appropriate think time, and indicating that this strategy will be used before students are asked questions. 
  • B.  For the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol, emphasize the importance of eye contact. If students have time to practice this protocol using topics that are of personal interest to them, the protocol may better enhance the academic conversation when you want the focus to be on the content.
  • Consider providing the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face prompts in writing, on sentence strips, for students who need a visual support for this auditory activity. 
  • Be sure to keep the class note charts that are generated from the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face responses. These notes begin to contrast Nya's and Salva's points of view and will be used again in the module as students write about the characters during End of Unit Assessments and the Module Performance Task.

B. Discussing Character Points of View: Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face Protocol (20 minutes) 

Note: limit the actual protocol to 10 minutes, in order to have enough time to debrief and chart as a whole class, to check understanding for all.

  • Share with students that close readers regularly use the text to answer questions. Add this practice to the "Things Close Readers Do" anchor chart. Explain to students that today they'll practice using the text to answer questions in an engaging discussion. 
  • Post on the document projector (or have written on a chart) the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face prompts. Read the first question and the answer, as a brief model. 
  • Then give students just a few minutes to read through the other prompts and think about them. Keep this brief.
  • Before students stand up, read the instructions for the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol. Ask for one student volunteer to describe the directions to the class in his/her own words. Then cold call on one more student to explain the directions to the class again.
  • Tell students that after they have discussed the questions, you will cold call students for answers and take notes on chart paper for the whole class.
  • Help students arrange into partnerships for the day's class. Be sure that all students have the book A Long Walk to Water in their hands for the discussion protocol. 
  • Begin the protocol. Limit it to 10 minutes, even if that means students do not discuss all the questions. Be sure to include wait time for students to think after you ask each question. Coach students as needed to follow your cues and prompts. 
  • Ask students to return to their seats. Cold call on two students to share their responses to the prompt. Take notes on the student responses on a piece of chart paper (for future use--see Teaching Notes). 
  • Ask students to clarify their responses or reference page numbers and sentences in the text, as needed. Provide supportive feedback that encourages students to use the text when developing answers to the prompts.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Revisit Learning Targets (5 minutes)

  • Reread the day's learning targets:

* "I can determine the central ideas of Chapter 2 of A Long Walk to Water."

* "I can analyze how the author, Linda Sue Park, develops and contrasts the points of view of Nya and Salva in A Long Walk to Water."

* "I can effectively engage in discussions with my classmates about our reading of A Long Walk to Water."

  • Refer to the posted Fist to Five chart from Lesson 1. Remind them that this self-assessment helps students to rate themselves on a continuum from 0 (fist), meaning far from the target, to five (five fingers), having solidly met the target. 
  • Use the Fist to Five protocol to have students rate themselves on their practice of the first and third learning targets ("determine the central ideas" and "engaging in effective discussion") of the day's lesson. Cold call on a few students to provide evidence for the rating they gave themselves.
  • Tell students that they will reflect in writing for the second learning target ("contrasting the points of view"). Distribute the exit ticket with the following prompt: "Describe one way that Linda Sue Park (the author) has created different points of view for Nya and Salva. How are the two characters different?"
  • Remind students of the expectations for focused, silent work time as all students are completing the exit ticket (see Lesson 1).
  • Collect all exit tickets. 
  • The exit ticket for today's lesson acts as a assessment of students' analysis of the characters' differences. Keep copies of this exit ticket for use in Lesson 5 as students dig deeper into character point of view.

Homework

Homework
  • Reread Chapter 2 and keep adding to Columns 3 and 5 of your Reader's Notes. What new thinking do you have after our Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face discussion? 

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