Building Background Knowledge: The Dinka Tribe (“Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee Camps” Excerpt 1-2) | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G7:M1:U1:L13

Building Background Knowledge: The Dinka Tribe (“Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee Camps” Excerpt 1-2)

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can recognize, interpret, and make connections in narratives, poetry, and drama, ethically and artistically to other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, eras, personal events, and situations. (RL.7.11)
  • I can use a variety of strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words or phrases. (L.7.4)
  • I can select evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (W.7.9)

Supporting Targets

  • I can select evidence from the article "Sudanese Tribes Confront Modern War" to support analysis of the perspectives of the Nuer and Dinka tribes of Southern Sudan.
  • I can annotate text to help me track important ideas. 
  • I can use context clues to determine word meanings. 

Ongoing Assessment

  • Text annotations for gist
  • Selecting Evidence graphic organizer
  • Exit ticket

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

A. Introducing Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2.  Work Time

A. Selecting Evidence for Writing from "Sudanese Tribes Confront Modern War" (10 minutes)

B. Framing and Vocabulary Preview: Excerpt 1 of "Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee Camps" (5 minutes)

C. Read Aloud and Annotating for Gist: Excerpt 1 (20 minutes) 

3.  Closing and Assessment

A. Revisit Learning Targets and Read Aloud Paragraph 9 (5 minutes)

4.  Homework

A. Reread Excerpt 1, read (first read) Excerpt 2 of "Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee Camps," and continue to annotate the text for the "gist." 

  • This lesson follows a very similar pattern to Lessons 10 and 11, continuing to build students' close reading skills as well as their background knowledge about the Dinka and Nuer Tribes.
  • Note that paragraph 6 of this excerpt is more challenging; be prepared to give students more guided practice if needed.
  • The end of Work Time Part C includes guided practice summarizing. Continue to reinforce the connection between their early preliminary "gist" annotations and this more formal summary of the main idea. During Unit 2, students will continue to build their ability to summarize independently. 
  • In this lesson, students also continue to develop their ability to cite evidence in their writing. They practice gathering and using evidence in a full response to a constructed response question; in Lesson 14, students will complete this writing task as part of an End of Unit Assessment. Note, however, that the writing focus is more broadly on W.7.9, "writing about reading"; Unit 2 will go much more in depth to address the key aspects of W.7.2 (including adding a fourth step to the graphic organizer, so students have more scaffolding for more formal writing). 
  • Students can figure out most vocabulary in context. Four words (ululating, compound, dowry, and primarily) that can be explained quickly are previewed before the read-aloud. To save time, consider posting these four words and definitions in advance. Keep this vocabulary preview brief; students need to engage directly with the text. 
  • Students will continue to work with this text in Lesson 14. 
  • Students again briefly review the "Things Close Readers Do" anchor chart (during the Closing). Hold on to this chart. In Unit 2, students work with a resource that gives them even more details about close reading, and will refer back to the chart they helped to build.

Vocabulary

cite, text-based evidence, summarize, analysis, perspectives, detail/evidence, inference/reasoning; displaced, ululating, compound, dowry, marred, primarily, transformed, negotiations, overtures

Materials

  • "Sudanese Tribes Confront Modern War" (from Lesson 10) 
  • Selecting Evidence--Perspectives of the Dinka and the Nuer graphic organizer (from Lesson 12)
  • Excerpts from "Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee Camps" (one per student) 
  • Document camera
  • Exit ticket (one per student)
  • Things Close Readers Do anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; see additions in supporting materials)--add: "select evidence from the text to use in writing."

Opening

Opening

A. Introducing Learning Targets (5 minutes) 

  • Share the learning targets out loud:

* "I can select evidence from the article 'Sudanese Tribes Confront Modern War' to support analysis of the perspectives of the Nuer and Dinka tribes of Southern Sudan."

* "I can annotate text to help me track important ideas." 

* "I can use context clues to determine word meanings." 

  • Focus students on the first target in particular: "I can select evidence from the article 'Sudanese Tribes Confront Modern War' to support analysis of the perspectives of the Nuer and Dinka tribes of Southern Sudan."
  • Point out that they are becoming stronger with analyzing complex text and finding specific evidence. Today, they will practice selecting evidence for their writing. In Lesson 14, they will complete an End of Unit Assessment that checks their progress on these learning targets. 
  • Keep students with partners from Lesson 10 ("A-Day" seating). Remind students that they'll practice our Partner Talk Expectations with these partners so that they can share ideas with different classmates.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Selecting Evidence for Writing from "Sudanese Tribes Confront Modern War" (10 minutes)

  • Remind students that today they'll start writing about their understanding of the experiences of the Dinka and Nuer tribes of South Sudan. 
  • Ask students to take out their annotated text, "Sudanese Tribes Confront Modern War," and the Selecting Evidence - Perspectives of the Dinka and the Nuer graphic organizer (which they began in Lesson 12). 
  • "Think aloud" through the example given on the top half of the page for Selecting Evidence.
  • Invite students to complete the steps listed on the second half of the page, in which they practice selecting evidence in response to a constructed response question.
  • Circulate to support students as needed. Remind them that this process is just the next step of what they have been doing: they have been gathering evidence; now they just need to choose the best evidence they want to write about. 
  • Collect students' Selecting Evidence graphic organizer for review and feedback.
  • For students who struggle with following multiple-step directions, consider having them highlight the explicit steps in this graphic organizer once they have been discussed and identified by the class.

B. Framing and Vocabulary Preview: Excerpt 1 of "Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe 
 Adrift in Refugee Camps" (5 minutes) 

  • Share with students that in Lesson 14 they will get a chance to show what they know about reading closely for evidence: the main goal is to read closely. They will be writing about the evidence, just as they practiced today. Remind students that they have been working to understand Nya's and Salva's points of view. 
  • Briefly reread a key passage from Chapter 1 (page 2): "Salva's father was a successful man. He owned many head of cattle and worked as their village's judge--an honored, respected position." Ask students: 

* "Why do you think there is so much talk about cattle in this novel? How is that important in terms of us understanding Salva's experience?"

  • Invite a few students to share out. Tell them that today they will begin a new article that provides additional important background information that will help them understand Salva's point of view.
  • Distribute "Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee Camps." Prompt students to skim the article, focusing on the words in bold. 
  • Point out that most of these words are ones students can figure out as they read. A few others, define briefly. Post definitions:

* ululating: howling

* compound: housing for many people; a group of shelters or houses

* dowry: gift (property or money) brought by a bride to her husband's family when they marry

* primarily: mainly

  • To further support students in thinking about this question, consider adding a Think-Pair-Share.

C. Read Aloud and Annotating for Gist: Excerpt 1 (20 minutes)

  • Tell students that as they have done the past few days, you will first read this excerpt aloud. They will have time to stop, think, and annotate their text. Point out that they are getting better at this skill each day. 
  • Read one paragraph at a time, and stop for students to jot notes.
  • After reading all eight paragraphs, invite students to turn and talk with a partner about their annotations.
  • Gather the attention of the whole class. Cold call a student to share the gist for paragraph 1. Listen for students to say something like "People are celebrating."
  • Probe, asking,

* "What words in this paragraph signaled to you that it was mostly about a celebration?"

  • Give students a moment to turn and talk, then invite a few to share out. Listen for students to notice the words "dancing, song, chanting, ululating..." 
  • Repeat with paragraph 2, cold calling a new student to share out the gist. Listen for students to say something like "The celebration is for a dowry, but there are no cattle to give." 
  • Remind students that they were told that a dowry is a gift given to celebrate a marriage. Probe, asking,

* "How do you know what the dowry was supposed to be?"

  • Repeat with paragraphs 3-4, 5-6, and 7-8, cold calling a new student to share out the gist of each paragraph selection. (Note that paragraph 6 is the most challenging, so allocate time accordingly). 
  • Support students in identifying the following "gist" ideas:

* Paragraphs 3-4: The family (the Duk-Fuels) can only promise cattle because the war has taken the cattle away.

* Paragraphs 5-6: Men negotiate dowries for the marriages of women, and they used to offer numerous cattle in a process like "competitive bidding."

* Paragraphs 7-8: The dowry ceremony happens without cattle now, only a handshake, and this reminds the Dinka that they have no land.

  • Remind students that their annotations are about the "gist"--the general sense of what a chunk of text is mostly about. Tell them that, as in previous lessons, now that they have spent more time rereading and thinking about this excerpt, they will more formally summarize this section: 

* "What is the main idea?"

As guided practice, invite students to contribute to this summary. Model writing the summary on the top of the article (For example: "The Dinka use cattle as dowry to celebrate weddings, but since the Dinka have no land and have no cattle because of the war, they can only make promises to give cattle in the future.")

Ask students to copy this summary onto their own article. Reiterate that annotating for gist helped you think about what was most important, which in turn helped you summarize the main idea. Tell students that in the next unit, they will work more on summarizing complex text. 

  • Consider partnering ELL students who speak the same home language when discussion of complex content is required. This can allow students to have more meaningful discussions and clarify points in their native language.
  • Text-dependent questions can be answered only by referring explicitly to the text being read. This encourages students to reread the text for further analysis and allows for a deeper understanding. Encourage students throughout this portion of the lesson to reference the text directly. 
  • To further encourage students to refer to the text, consider displaying the article and text-dependent questions using a document camera and point out or have students point out where in the text they found evidence for their answers.
  • For students who struggle with following multiple-step directions, consider having them highlight the explicit steps in this graphic organizer once they have been discussed and identified by the class.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Revisit Learning Targets and Read Aloud Paragraph 9 (5 minutes)

  • Ask students to turn their attention to the Things Close Readers Doanchor chart. Invite students to suggest any additional strategies that should be added to the chart from today's lesson. Elicit ideas related to selecting evidence from the text to use in writing.
  • Distribute the exit ticket and give students a few minutes to reflect on the questions from the ticket. This exit ticket will help them reflect on the various strategies they have practiced and documented on the anchor chart and prepare them for the upcoming assessment.
  • Point out to students that as in previous lessons, they will reread this excerpt as a part of their homework. Tell students that in Lesson 14, they will complete a Gathering Evidence and Selecting Evidence graphic organizer on the excerpts from the article "Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee Camps." They will then use these notes to help them write a response, just as they practiced today.
  • Remind students that with complex text, it often helps to hear it read aloud while reading silently in one's head. Focus students on Excerpt 2. Read aloud paragraph 9 of this excerpt, "Before war caused institutions to collapse.... They were the south's richest and proudest tribe."
  • Tell students that as they read the rest of Excerpt 2 for homework, they should continue to think about how war has changed things for the Dinka. 

Homework

Homework
  • With the article "Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee Camps," reread Excerpt 1. Then do a first read of Excerpt 2. Try to figure out any of the words in bold. 

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