Claim, Reasons, and Evidence: Planning the Body Paragraphs | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M4:U3:L3

Claim, Reasons, and Evidence: Planning the Body Paragraphs

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (W.6.1)
  • With support from peers and adults, I can use a writing process to produce clear and coherent writing. (W.6.5)
  • I can accurately use sixth-grade academic vocabulary to express my ideas. (L.6.6)

Supporting Targets

  • I can give and receive feedback with my peers on claims, reasons, and evidence.
  • I can analyze a body paragraph of the model position paper.
  • I can plan the body paragraphs of my position paper.
  • I can use appropriate vocabulary to express my ideas.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Planning My Body Paragraphs graphic organizer

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

     A.  Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

     B.  How Are My Ideas? (8 minutes)

2.  Work Time

    A.  Writing a Body Paragraph: Studying the Model  (10 minutes)

    B.  Planning My Body Paragraphs: Quote Sandwich (20 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

    A.  What Words Should I Be Using? (5 minutes)

4.  Homework

     A.  Read your independent reading book for 30 minutes. Complete the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.

  • In the previous two lessons, students analyzed a model position paper for content and argument and made final revisions to their claim and supporting evidence after reflecting on teacher feedback from the Unit 2 hosted Gallery Walk.
  • In this lesson, students add reasons to their Planning My Argument graphic organizer. The reasons will connect the claim and supporting evidence.
  • Students also analyze a body paragraph of the model position paper identifying the author's reason, supporting evidence, and the author's explanation of how the evidence supports the claim.
  • Using a document camera, this information is written on a graphic organizer similar to the sandwich graphic organizer used in other modules. The graphic organizer provides a visual image of how the body paragraphs are organized and the statements are connected. The graphic organizer also scaffolds the writing of the three body paragraphs that students will write in Lesson 4.
  • Students may need to refer to their resources from previous lessons found in the research folder.
  • In advance: Form student partnerships for a peer critique of the "big picture" plan for the position paper. Consider pairing students who have different claims, as it might "push the thinking" of students further. Remind students that their partner's argument should state a claim that is clear and represent the author's point of view. The author's reasons should also be clear and connect relevant evidence.
  • Consider preparing a resource area in the room where students can have access to articles and other resources from Units 1 and 2 if needed.
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

reasons, analyze, appropriate, domain specific vocabulary

Materials

  • Research folder (from previous lessons)
  • Planning My Argument graphic organizer (from Lesson 2; one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Model position paper: "Hydraulic Fracturing" (from Lesson 1)
  • Planning My Body Paragraphs graphic organizer (one per student and one to display)
  • Domain-Specific Vocabulary and Transitions graphic organizer (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Invite a student to read today's learning targets:

* "I can give and receive feedback with my peers on claims, reasons, and evidence."

* "I can analyze a body paragraph of the model position paper."

* "I can plan the body paragraphs of my position paper."

* "I can use appropriate vocabulary to express my ideas."

  • Ask:

* "How do an author's claim, reasons, and evidence connect? Think back to Lesson 1 when you were analyzing the model position paper. Show a thumbs-up when you have an answer in your head."

  • Cold call a few students. Listen for them to say that the claim in the model paper was the author's point of view that hydraulic fracturing should be used to collect natural gas. The author gave three reasons for this position: It is better for the environment, it benefits people, but it should be done safely with regulations. These three reasons gave the readers supporting explanations for the claim. Share that the author also cited evidence from a resource supporting each reason. 
  • Ask:

* "What does it mean to analyze and plan the body paragraphs? Think back to previous lessons when you were asked to analyze. Show a thumbs-up when you have an answer in your head."

  • Cold call a few students. Listen for them to say that to analyze is to break the body paragraph down or to deconstruct the paragraph.
  • Ask:

* "What is meant by using 'appropriate vocabulary to express my ideas'? Think about academic and domain-specific vocabulary from Units 1 and 2 and how these might relate to 'appropriate' vocabulary. Show a thumbs-up when you have an answer in your head."

  • Cold call a few students. Listen for them to say that appropriate vocabulary is using vocabulary we learned from our resource materials when researching DDT, such as "malaria," "bioaccumulation," and "pesticide."
  • Share with students that the targets highlight our tasks in the planning step of our position paper. Explain that in this lesson students will share a "big picture" plan for their position paper, analyze a body paragraph of the model, and plan their body paragraphs using domain-specific vocabulary learned from their research. 
  • Posting the learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. The learning targets also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.
  • Discussing and clarifying the language of learning targets helps build academic vocabulary.

B. How Are My Ideas? (8 minutes)

  • Tell students who their partner will be.
  • Invite students to open their research folder and retrieve the Planning My Argument graphic organizer. Ask students to read what they wrote for their claim and supporting pieces of evidence.
  • Using a document camera, display the Planning My Argument graphic organizer. Remind students of the claim in the model position paper: that hydraulic fracturing should be used to collect natural gas. Model writing this claim on the graphic organizer.
  • Next, ask students to remember the three reasons the author identified to support the claim or position.
  • Cold call students. Listen for: "The author feels it is better for the environment; it helps people; and if done safely and is regulated, it has many benefits."
  • Model writing the author's three reasons in the left margin in front of each box of supporting evidence.
  • Tell students they are now going to write three reasons for their own claim in the left margin of their graphic organizer. Remind students that reasons are the explanations for why the author has a particular point of view or claim. Explain that it may be helpful to think of the stakeholders that are affected by their claim. Pause and give students time to write their three reasons for their claim.
  • Circulate and support students as needed. Ask questions such as: "Who would your claim help?" and "After reading the evidence, what are the benefits?"
  • Refocus the class. Explain to students that they will share with their partner the "big picture" plan for their position paper. Tell students they should start by stating their claim or position. After their claim is presented, they will share Reason 1 and their supporting evidence for that reason. Next, they will share Reason 2 and their supporting evidence for that reason. Then Reason 3 will be stated along with its supporting evidence.
  • Pause and give students time to present their ideas to their partner.
  • Invite partners to give feedback to each other. Remind students they do not have to agree with their partner's claim, but they should make sure the claim is clear; the reasons and supporting evidence are relevant and logical; and the claim, reasons, and evidence connect.
  • Pause to give students time to give feedback to each other.
  • Circulate and notice partners giving constructive feedback to improve their argument.
  • Congratulate students for their efforts in supporting their partners in this planning step of their position paper. Explain to students that successful writers take time to carefully plan and get peer feedback before they write a draft. 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Writing a Body Paragraph: Studying the Model (10 minutes)

  • Direct students to their research folder and the model position paper: "Hydraulic Fracturing." Using the document camera, display the model essay. Explain that the first paragraph is the introduction, the next three paragraphs in the middle are the body paragraphs, and the fifth paragraph is the conclusion. Invite students to skim the first paragraph of the model to find the author's claim. Pause to give time.
  • Ask partners to Think-Pair-Share:

* "What is the author's claim?"

  • Listen for: "The claim is that hydraulic fracturing is a process that should be used to collect natural gas."
  • Now use the document camera to display the Planning My Body Paragraphs graphic organizer. Model writing the claim in the top margin. Explain to students that this graphic organizer is a version of the sandwich graphic organizer used in other modules. Share that this is the structure they will use to write their own body paragraphs.
  • Share with students that they are going to work with their partner to analyze, or deconstruct, the second paragraph. Read over the graphic organizer with the students. Ask partners to identify the statement giving the reason, the statement citing the evidence that supports the reason, and the statement that connects the evidence to the claim. Tell them to put an "R" by the first word beginning the reason statement. Tell them to put an "E" by the first word beginning the evidence statement and to put a "C" by the first word beginning the connect statement.
  • Pause to give partners time to identify these three statements.
  • Circulate to support struggling students.
  • Cold call partners to share out. Listen for: "The reason for the second paragraph is that hydraulic fracturing should be used because it is better for the environment. This led to the supporting evidence from National Geographic, 'Natural gas burns much cleaner than coal. In part because American power plants have been switching from coal to cheap gas, U.S. emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels fell last year, even as the world set another record.' The connect is, 'This means that by switching from coal to natural gas collected by hydraulic fracturing, we can make the air cleaner and do less damage to the ozone layer.' The connect box is for a statement that links the evidence to the claim."
  • Using the document camera, explain to students that you want to fill in the graphic organizer to show them how this paragraph might have looked in its planning stages. Tell students this graphic organizer is one that they will use to write their own position paper. Model filling out the reason, evidence, and connect of the Planning My Body Paragraphs graphic organizer using the model position paper.
  • Next, ask partners to follow the same routine, marking the statements with an "R," "E," and "C" for Paragraphs 3 and 4.
  • Pause to give students time to read and annotate their text.
  • Circulate and support struggling students. Compliment partners sharing their ideas.
  • Refocus the class. Cold call students to share the reason, evidence, and connect for Paragraphs 3 and 4.
  • Ask students to turn and talk with each other:

* "What is included in each body paragraph in this model?"

  • After students have had a chance to discuss, refocus the whole group. Cold call a pair and listen for: "Each body paragraph provides a reason for the claim, cites evidence that supports the reason, and explains how the evidence connects to the claim."
  • Congratulate students for their efforts to deconstruct the model position paper. Explain that analyzing an example paragraph from the model essay will help them plan their own body paragraphs.
  • Providing models of expected work supports all students, especially challenged learners.
  • Allowing students to discuss their thinking with peers before writing helps to scaffold their comprehension and also assists in language acquisition for ELLs.

B. Planning My Body Paragraphs: Quote Sandwich (20 minutes)

  • Distribute the Planning My Body Paragraphs graphic organizer to each student. Ask students to retrieve their Planning My Argument graphic organizer, which they used earlier in the lesson.
  • Invite students to focus on today's third and fourth learning targets as they complete their body paragraphs plan:

* "I can plan the body paragraphs of my position paper."

* "I can use appropriate vocabulary to express my ideas."

  • Remind students they are planning three body paragraphs and that much of their planning has been completed. Ask them to use appropriate vocabulary. Suggest they reference the Word Wall and their articles for domain-specific vocabulary. Share that in this lesson they will not need to write anything in the transition boxes and that transitions will be introduced in another lesson.
  • Invite students to write their first reason in sentence form in the appropriate box. Then ask them to write the evidence that supports their first reason. Remind them to write a sentence and to use quotations where the quote begins and where the quote ends. Both reasons and evidence can be copied from their Planning My Argument graphic organizer. Explain that they will need to write a sentence that links the evidence to their claim. This statement should be written in the connect box. Ask students to use the model essay as a guide to help them understand how the author makes this connection.
  • Circulate and support students as they plan their paragraphs. Notice focused students and students writing complete sentences.
  • Refocus the whole group.
  • Praise students for their detailed paragraph plans. Explain that tomorrow they will use the paragraph "sandwiches" to write their body paragraphs.
  • During this Work Time, you may want to pull a small group of students to help them find evidence. Some students will need more guided practice before they are ready for independent work.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. What Words Should I Be Using? (5 minutes)

  • Form student partnerships with students who have similar claims.
  • Distribute the Domain-Specific Vocabulary and Transitions graphic organizer. Tell partners they should think of domain-specific vocabulary--words that are specific to their claim--and write those words in the left column of the graphic organizer. Remind them that the transition column will be used in a future lesson. Explain that partners should work together to come up with as many words as they can think of. Ask students to use correct spelling. Remind them that they can use their resources in the research folder and the Word Wall for help with correct spelling and ideas for appropriate vocabulary for their claim.
  • Refocus the whole group. Applaud students for their effort to record these vocabulary words. Ask partners to Think-Pair-Share:

*   "Why is it important to use appropriate vocabulary?"

  • Listen for: "Our writing will be clearer to the reader, and our position paper will sound more formal and educated."

Homework

Homework
  • Read your independent reading book for 30 minutes. Complete the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.

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