Planning the Argument: Writing the Claim and Reasons | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M4:U3:L2

Planning the Argument: Writing the Claim and Reasons

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (W.6.1)
  • I can support my claims(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (W.6.1b)
  • I can use credible sources to support my claims(s). (W.6.1b)

Supporting Targets

  • I can identify the steps to writing a position paper.
  • I can plan my claim and evidence for my position paper.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Planning My Argument graphic organizer

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

     A.  Independent Reading Check-in (8 minutes)

     B.  Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2.  Work Time

     A.  How Will We Get There? Introducing Steps to Writing a Position Paper (10 minutes)

     B.  Planning Our Argument: Claim and Evidence  (20 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

     A.  Reflecting on the Learning Targets: Fist to Five (5 minutes)

4.  Homework

     A.   Read your independent reading book for 30 minutes. Complete the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.

  • In the first part of Lesson 1, students were introduced to a model position paper. The first read was to understand its content, and then students read the model again to analyze the argument. In the second part of Lesson 1, students were introduced to the Position Paper Argument Rubric. They compared it to the expository rubric used in previous modules, and identified similarities and differences. Students were asked to focus on the "Claim and Reasons" section of the rubric and interpret these expectations, which include:

-   The position paper clearly introduces the topic and the claim in a logical manner that is compelling and follows logically from the task and purpose.

-   The claim and reasons demonstrate an insightful analysis of the topic.

  • In Lesson 2, students are introduced to the six Steps to Writing a Position Paper. They work in partners to identify the tasks within each step. After the tasks have been determined, students are able to see that the prewriting step has been completed and they are currently in the planning stage.
  • Students begin their Planning My Argument graphic organizer in this lesson. Note that they do not complete the "reasons" section until Lesson 3; see Work Time B for details.
  • Also in Lesson 2, students reflect on the End of Unit 2 Assessment: The Hosted Gallery Walk and their claim and supporting evidence. Students consider making final revisions to their claims and supporting evidence based on their reflection of presentations from the Gallery Walk and teacher feedback from the End of Unit 2 Assessment. Students are reminded to cite the source of their supporting evidence. To do this, students may need to refer to the researcher's folder with all the sources/articles and their researcher's notebook.
  • In advance: Determine two groupings: Groups of four to identify tasks in the Steps to Writing a Position Paper, and groups of two for partnering during the planning of the argument.
  • On the board or chart paper, write the six Steps to Writing the Position Paper, but do not list the tasks under each step.
  • Create the full Steps to Writing a Position Paper for Work Time A (a filled in version; see supporting materials).
  • Post: Learning targets; Types of Claims and Evidence anchor chart.

Vocabulary

claim, evidence

Materials

  • Steps to Writing a Position Paper (blank; one to display; see Teaching Note)
  • Sticky notes (two per group)
  • Steps to Writing a Position Paper (with the tasks for each step; one per student and one to display)
  • Research folder (from previous lessons)
  • Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer (in research folder)
  • Four notecards from hosted Gallery Walk (in research folder)
  • End of Unit 2 Assessment: Presenting a Claim and Findings teacher feedback(in research folder)
  • Planning My Argument graphic organizer (one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Checklist for Forming an Evidence-Based Claim (one to display)
  • Types of Claims and Evidence anchor chart (from Unit 2, Lesson 12)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Reading Check-in (8 minutes)

  • Invite students to sit in their reading groups.
  • Remind them that in Lesson 1 they were asked to describe the problem, or conflict, of the main character.
  • Circulate and listen to students share the problems of their main characters. Note students who are not able to share; meet with them later to inquire about their reading goals and book choice.
  • Invite volunteers to briefly summarize their main character's problem with the class. Record the problems shared on the board.
  • Ask students:

* "What are some common problems authors develop for their main characters?"

  • Listen for examples such as the main character struggles with people and nature.
  • Ask:

* "Why is it important that authors give their main characters a problem?

  • Listen for responses such as: "Authors want to build interest and plot so their readers will want to continue reading."
  • Discussing independent reading continues to build student engagement and provides information about struggling readers.

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Ask for two student volunteers to lead reading the learning targets aloud with the class:

* "I can identify the steps to writing a position paper."

* "I can plan my claim and evidence for my position paper."

  • Tell students that today they will identify the tasks in the steps to writing a position paper. Also, emphasize that they will have an opportunity to reflect on both teacher feedback and the presentations from the Gallery Walk they did at the end of Unit 2. This planning step of the position paper includes providing time to make final revisions. Students will check their claim, or position, for clarity and author's point of view, and their supporting evidence, or documentation or proof, for relevant facts and concrete details.
  • Learning targets are a research-based strategy that helps all students, especially challenged learners.
  • Posting learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. The learning targets also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. How Will We Get There? Introducing Steps to Writing a Position Paper (10 minutes)

  • Ask students to get into the pre-determined groups of four.
  • Ask for a volunteer to read aloud the Steps to Writing a Position Paper (blank) written on the board. Explain that each step has tasks that help define the step. Assign each group a different step. Invite each group of four to come up with the tasks that define the step. Distribute two sticky notes to each group. Tell the groups to write the name of their step on each sticky note and list the tasks the writer needs to accomplish in their assigned step. Remind students that the writer may need to do several tasks to complete each step. Give students 3 minutes to write the tasks.
  • Circulate to support groups in identifying tasks.
  • Invite students to post their sticky notes on the board under the step their group was assigned.
  • Refocus the class.
  • Read aloud the information students posted identifying the tasks for the prewriting step. After the tasks have been read aloud to the class, ask students:

* "Have we identified all of the prewriting tasks?" Add new information students provide to the sticky notes on the board.

  • Display the first step of the Steps to Writing a Position Paper (with the tasks for each step). Read aloud the tasks listed under the Prewrite step. Compare the list to the one students made on the board. Explain that the prewriting step for their position paper was completed in Units 1 and 2.
  • Next, ask a student to read aloud the sticky note information identifying the tasks for the Plan step. After the information is read, invite volunteers to add their ideas about missing tasks. Add these ideas to the sticky notes.
  • Display the second step of the Steps to Writing a Position Paper (with the tasks for each step). Ask students to compare what was on their sticky notes to what is listed on the completed handout. Discuss the Plan step, making sure students understand that this step was started at the end of Unit 2. Tell them that they will continue to plan for their position paper in this lesson.
  • Continue with this routine until all steps have been defined.
  • Distribute Steps for Writing a Position Paper (with the tasks for each step) to each student. Point out where students' definitions of the steps are similar to those listed. Also point out any tasks that students did not come up with on their own.
  • Commend students for their thinking about the writing process and the steps writers take to become accomplished.
  • Allow students to grapple with the Steps to Writing a Position Paper before displaying the completed handout to help them monitor their understanding of the writing process.
  • Anchor charts serve as note-catchers and provide students with a reference for the writing process.

B. Planning Our Argument: Claim and Evidence (20 minutes)

  • Form student partnerships based on students' End of Unit 2 Assessment.
  • Ask students to take out their research folder. Invite them to find their Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer from Unit 2 and/or their four notecards from hosted Gallery Walk. Also ask students to locate the End of Unit 2 Assessment: Presenting a Claim and Findings teacher feedback from the hosted Gallery Walk.
  • After students have retrieved these materials, ask them to read through the claim and evidence they used in Unit 2 for the hosted Gallery Walk.
  • Distribute the Planning My Argument graphic organizer. Remind students of the learning targets and how successful writers plan and organize their writing.
  • Using a document camera, display the Planning My Argument graphic organizer. Read aloud the questions on the graphic organizer. Ask students to read their End of Unit 2 Assessment: Presenting a Claim and Findings with teacher feedback and reflect on a Star and a Next Step in their writing of a claim and supporting evidence. Pause to give students time to reflect and write.
  • Circulate and support students who need help reflecting on the graphic organizer, the notecards, and teacher feedback. Help them to see a Star and Next Step in their writing.
  • Invite volunteers to share their Star and Next Step with their partner.
  • Show appreciation for this reflection time and their willingness to become successful writers by following the Steps to Writing a Position Paper.
  • Ask students to complete the rest of the graphic organizer by writing their claim and supporting pieces of evidence in complete sentences. Explain to students that this is an opportunity to review articles, charts, and graphs one last time as they plan their claim and supporting evidence. Remind students to also cite the sources of their evidence.
  • Tell students they are intentionally leaving the "reasons" section blank, since they will address this part of the graphic organizer in Lesson 3.
  • Using a document camera, display the Checklist for Forming an Evidence-Based Claim. Read over the checklist to remind students of the criteria for a claim and supporting evidence.
  • Circulate and support students as they work. Explicitly praise students as they write complete sentences. Remind them also to refer to the Types of Claims and Evidence anchor chart posted to help with sentence starters for claim and evidence.
  • Congratulate students for their focused planning of their position paper. Also, applaud their efforts for referring to the checklist and anchor chart to revise and improve their claim and their three pieces of supporting evidence. Remind them that the Plan step is instrumental in preparing to write their own position paper.
  • Graphic organizers and recording forms engage students more actively and provide the scaffolding that is especially critical for students with lower levels of language proficiency and/or learning.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on the Learning Targets: Fist to Five (5 minutes)

  • Tell students you are going to read each of today's learning targets. They should respond with a Fist to Five on how accomplished they feel with the learning target. Explain that you want to gather information about how to plan for the next lesson. Share that it is important that all students are personally connected to their claim and supporting evidence, and the information they provide will help you support them in this planning stage.
  • Read each learning target:

* "I can identify the steps to writing a position paper."

* "I can plan my claim and evidence for my position paper."

  • Next, ask students to give you specific information on their claim and supporting evidence by using a Fist to Five in response to the following statements:

* "I have written a clear and specific claim that supports my point of view about hydraulic fracturing."

* "I have written three supporting pieces of evidence that are factual, relevant, and logical."

* "I have cited the sources for each piece of supporting evidence."

  • Note students who say they need support in writing their claim, supporting evidence, or citing their resources.
  • Checking in with learning targets helps students self-assess their learning. This research-based strategy supports struggling learners most.
  • After identifying struggling learners, consider meeting with them in small groups or individually so they are prepared for Lesson 3.

Homework

Homework
  • Read your independent reading book for 30 minutes. Complete the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.

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