Forming a Research-Based Claim: Cascading Consequences Chart | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M4:U2:L12

Forming a Research-Based Claim: Cascading Consequences Chart

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can present claims and findings in a logical order. (SL.6.4)
  • I can support my main points with descriptions, facts, and details. (SL.6.4)

Supporting Targets

  • I can draft a claim based on my research of DDT.
  • I can choose evidence from my research that supports my claim.
  • I can revise my claim based on evidence from my research.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

     A.  Independent Reading (5 minutes)

     B.  Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2.  Work Time

     A.  Mini Lesson: Writing a Claim and Findings (10 minutes)

     B.  Drafting a Claim and Findings (20 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

     A.  Sharing and Revising Your Claim (8 minutes)

4.  Homework

     A.  Read your independent book for 30 minutes. Complete the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.

  • This lesson represents a shift for students from building background knowledge and analyzing information about DDT to drafting their own claim and identifying evidence to support their claim.
  • Students are making connections about DDT by reviewing the informational articles, videos, charts, graphs, and tables and reflecting on their literary text, Frightful's Mountain. Students are reintroduced to the Forming Evidence-Based Claims task worksheet used throughout Module 2. This graphic organizer provides a structure for students' claims and supporting evidence and also asks them to think about the evidence chosen to support their claims. This reflection helps lead students to realize what information is most meaningful to them.
  • Students are partnered and asked to draft a claim. After they write their claim, partners search for details and supporting evidence from their Cascading Consequences charts and/or their Stakeholders Impacts chart. Supporting evidence can also be taken from the articles they have read and the data on the graphs, charts, and tables.
  • Later in the lesson, students draft their own personal claim and find supporting evidence. Students are reminded to find relevant supporting evidence.
  • In this lesson, students will also get an opportunity to share their claim and evidence with peers in a Concentric Circle activity.

In advance: Post these two guiding questions for all students to see:

-   Do the benefits of DDT outweigh its harmful consequences?

-   How do we balance the needs of people and the condition of the natural world?

  • Form student partnerships for working together on the Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer.
  • Consider preparing a resource area for students. This should include the articles and charts and graphs students have read and analyzed throughout Units 1 and 2. Also, consider having a listening station for review of the two videos from Unit 1.

-   Articles:

  • "Welcome Back"
  •  "The Exterminator"
  • "Rachel Carson: Sounding the Alarm on Pollution"
  • "Rachel Carson: Writer and Environmentalist"
  • "Biological Energy--Here, Let Me Fix It!"
  • "How DDT Harmed Hawks and Eagles"
  • "Malaria Carrying Mosquito Crash Lands Due to His Insecticide"

"You Think You Have It Tough?"

  • "DDT Spray Scares Mosquitoes Away, Study Finds"
  • "DDT use should be last resort in malaria- plagued areas, scientists say"

-   Charts, Graphs and Tables:  

  • "DDT and Malaria in Ceylon"
  • "DDT Bad, Malaria Much Worse"
  • "DDT in Breast Milk"
  • "DDT in Human Body Fat in the United States"
  • "Changes in Thickness of Eggshells"
  • "Increase in Malaria for Countries in South America"
  • "Lake Kariba, Africa DDT Levels"
  • "Malaria Trends in South Africa

-   Videos:

  • John Stossel DDT Video
  • DDT Video on Bioaccumulation 

Vocabulary

claim, research, evidence, relevant, revise

Materials

  • Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer (one per student)
  • Document camera
  • Benefits of DDT Cascading Consequence chart (from Unit 1; in research folder)
  • Harmful Consequences of DDT Cascading Consequence chart (from Unit 1; in research folder)
  • Stakeholders Impacts chart (in research folder)
  • Research folder
  • Types of Claims and Evidence anchor chart (one per student or use as an anchor chart)
  • Checklist for Forming an Evidence-Based Claim (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A.  Independent Reading (5 minutes)

  • Ask students to sit in book groups.
  • Invite students to discuss their notes from their Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.
  • Circulate and listen to determine students who may need reading support. Consider meeting with them later to discuss ways to build student engagement. 
  • Students who cannot yet read independently at any level will benefit from hearing books read to them either by partner reading or through audio recordings. Hearing books/texts can be an ongoing assignment for these students.
  • Posting learning targets for students allows them to reference the targets throughout the lesson to check their understanding. The targets also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.
  • Asking students to make connections from previous lessons points out how their skills build and as a result their learning grows.

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  •   Invite two volunteers to lead the class in reading the learning targets:

* "I can draft a claim based on my research of DDT."

* "I can choose evidence from my research that supports my claim."

* "I can revise my claim based on evidence from my research."

  • Say to students:

* "As you can see, our three targets have familiar vocabulary terms: claim, research, evidence, and relevant. In Unit 1 and the first half of Unit 2, we have been identifying an author's claim and supporting evidence by reading articles, viewing videos, and analyzing graphs, charts, and tables about DDT. What do we already know about the meaning of these words: claimevidenceresearch, and relevant?"

  •  Invite volunteers to share their responses. Listen for responses like: "We know a claim means to say something is true when some people may believe it's not true," "We know evidence is the details that support a particular claim," "We know researchers gather information or research about a topic to become more knowledgeable," and "If information is relevant, it proves or disproves a claim."
  • Ask students:

 *  "After reading the targets, what do you think we will focus on in this lesson?"

  • Select volunteers to share their responses. Listen for students to explain in this lesson they will write their own claim and provide evidence to support their position on DDT.
  • Ask:

* "What do you think revise our claim means?"

  • Listen for: "We will look at our claim and make changes as needed." 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Mini Lesson: Writing a Claim and Findings (10 minutes)

  • Tell students today's lesson brings a shift in their learning. In previous lessons, they researched DDT to build background knowledge and analyze their information. Remind them that throughout Unit 1 and the first half of Unit 2 they have considered the guiding questions, "Do the benefits of DDT outweigh its harmful consequences?" and "How do we balance the needs of people and the condition of the natural world?" Explain that, as researchers, their position on this topic has probably changed over time as they gained more knowledge.
  • Tell students the world is filled with controversies about how best to act on certain issues. Share that successful researchers spend time studying both sides of an issue or argument to understand different perspectives. Explain that some knowledge gained about DDT has been documented in their Cascading Consequences charts. Also explain that completing their Stakeholders Impacts chart provided time to reflect on the stakeholders affected and personalize their understanding of the DDT controversy.
  • Pose these questions for students to think about:

* "How do you feel about this issue today?" 

* "Do the benefits of DDT outweigh its harmful consequences?"

* "How do we balance the needs of people and the condition of the natural world?"

  • Remind students that in Lesson 11, they ended class by taking a "stand" and going to one of the four corners that best represented their position on this issue, "Do the benefits of DDT outweigh the harmful consequences?" Share that in this lesson, they'll be able to voice their position or claim in writing. They will advocate persuasively for their position to peers in a hosted Gallery Walk as their End of Unit 2 Assessment.
  • To prepare for the assessment, they will first write a practice claim about DDT with a partner. Then, they will review information from their Cascading Consequences charts, the Stakeholders Impacts chart, articles, charts, and graphs to find three pieces of supporting evidence.
  • Form student partnerships.
  • Distribute the Forming Evidence-Based Claims graphic organizer and display it using a document camera. Remind students that they used this claim and evidence form throughout Module 2.
  • Point out the two guiding questions posted in the room, and invite students to write them neatly in the space underneath their name and task.
  • Using a document camera, model writing the two questions for students.
  • Next, ask students to find their Benefits of DDT Cascading Consequences chart and Harmful Consequences of DDTCascading Consequences chart and their Stakeholders Impacts chart from their research folder. Direct students to read the Cascading Consequences charts and think about the claims or pieces of evidence that caused them to have strong feelings about DDT. Then ask them to read their Stakeholders Impacts chart and think about the stakeholders. How have they been impacted by the decisions people have made regarding DDT?
  • Ask partners to Think-Pair-Share:

*   "What pieces of evidence on the Cascading Consequences charts seem the most important to you?" Give students time to share their thoughts with each other.

  • Direct students' attention to the Types of Claims and Evidence anchor chart, which defines how to write a claim that is clear. Tell students they now are going to write a claim with their partner. Tell them a claim is a single sentence that presents the issue, is specific and clear, is something you believe, and something you can build a solid argument about. Read the Types of Claims and Evidence anchor chart to the students. Point out the example claims.
  • Using a document camera, model for students how they can use the claim examples on the anchor chart to frame their own claim.

                

                 For example:    DDT is .................................. and can provide ..........................

                                             Using DDT has caused ..............................................................

                                             ............. is the most pressing challenge facing the world today.

                                             Instead of ............. we should be focusing on ...........................

 

  • Invite partners to draft an initial claim on the back of their graphic organizer. Tell them the claim does not have to represent their own personal belief but rather the goal is to have an opportunity to practice writing a claim with a partner. Give them 3 minutes to write their claim. Pause to give partners time.
  • Circulate and support students needing help with writing their claim.
  • Refocus the whole class.
  • Next, ask partners to identify one piece of evidence either from their Cascading Consequences charts, from their researcher's notebook, or from their articles, charts, and graphs that would support this claim. Explain the evidence should be relevant to their claim and prove or disprove their position. Tell students they have 2 minutes to find supporting information and write it by their claim. Pause to give partners time.
  • Circulate to support partnerships. Remind students to use the anchor chart examples of evidence to begin their thinking. Encourage partners to work together. Show appreciation to partners who are collaborating.
  • Distribute the Checklist for Forming an Evidence-Based Claim. Ask partners to review their claim and evidence with the checklist.
  • Invite volunteers to share their claim and supporting evidence with the class. Consider writing the example to provide a model for select students.
  • Congratulate students on their partnership work. 
  • Anchor charts provide a visual cue to students about what to do when you ask them to work independently. They also serve as a reference when the class is working in partnerships.

B. Drafting a Claim and Findings (20 minutes)

  • Direct students to turn their graphic organizer over to the front side.    
  • Explain to students they will write their own claim and three pieces of supporting evidence. Using the document camera, point to the area where students write their initial claim on the top of their paper above their name. Then point to the first row of boxes, telling students this is where supporting evidence or details is recorded, and the next row of boxes is where they make personal connections about each specific detail. The box titled "How I connect the details" is done when the other information is completed. Explain to students this question is asking them to consider how all of the details are connected. For example, are the details facts and ideas from authors, are the details specific words or language of the authors, or are the details authors' opinions? Tell students that the claim section at the bottom of the page should be left blank. Inform students this is where they will write their final, revised claim at the end of the lesson.
  • Remind students that there are expectations for quiet writing time. Talking is a great way to learn and share ideas; however, quiet, focused writing is also valuable. Today's focus is on working independently to draft their own claim and identify three pieces of evidence supporting their claim.
  • Tell students they will have 18 minutes to write.
  • Ask:

* "How are you feeling, Fist to Five, about your readiness to start writing on your own today? A five means you are ready and excited; a three means you might need help getting started; and a one means please confer with me first."

  • Make note of students who have a one, two, or three and circulate to those students first. Then continue conferring with students during this work time. Focus on the first two learning targets: "I can draft a claim based on my research of DDT" and "I can choose evidence from my research that supports my claim." Check in with students to see how they are using the graphic organizer to support their writing.
  • Refocus the class after 18 minutes. Thank them for their cooperation in providing a quiet classroom for all students to write. 
  • When reviewing the graphic organizers or recording forms, consider using a document camera to visually display the document for students who struggle with auditory processing.
  • Providing models of expected work supports all learners, but especially challenged learners.
  • During this work time, you may want to pull a small group of students to support in finding evidence. Some students will need more guided practice before they are ready for independent work.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Sharing and Revising Your Claim (8 minutes)

  • Tell students they will use Concentric Circles to share their claim and evidence with their peers and also to get feedback.  Explain that after they present their claim and evidence, their partner will share a "star," something that was really clear, and a "step," something they have a question about or a suggestion.
  • Give students a minute to look over their claim and evidence. Invite students to bring their graphic organizer, a folder/text to use as a writing surface, and a pencil to the activity.
  • Concentric Circles:
  1. Divide the group in half.
  2. Have half make a circle.
  3. Have the other half make a circle around them.
  4. Tell the inside circle to face the students in the outside circle.
  5. Give students 2 minutes each to share their claim and evidence with the person facing them. Invite each partner to share a star and a step.
  6. Invite students to thank each other and then tell the inside circle to move two people to the right.
  7. Give students 1 minute to each share their claim and evidence with the person facing them. Invite each partner to share a star and a step.
  8. Invite students to thank each other.
  • Invite students to consider their stars and step feedback and write a revised claim at the bottom of their graphic organizer in the claim section. Explain if they are not making changes to their claim, they should rewrite their initial claim in the box.
  • Pause to give students time to write their claim.
  • Congratulate students on writing their position and finding relevant evidence to support their claim.
  • Use of protocols allows for total participation of students. It encourages critical thinking, collaboration, and social construction of knowledge. It also helps students to practice their speaking and listening skills.

Homework

Homework
  • Read your independent book for 30 minutes. Complete the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.

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