Forming a Research-Based Claim: Creating Stakeholders Charts | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M4:U2:L11

Forming a Research-Based Claim: Creating Stakeholders Charts

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can use my experience and knowledge of language and logic, as well as culture, to think analytically, address problems creatively, and advocate persuasively. (RI.6.9a)
  • I can use evidence from a variety of grade-appropriate texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (W.6.9)
  • I can present claims and findings in a logical order. (SL.6.4)
  • I can support my main points with description, facts, and details. (SL.6.4)

Supporting Targets

  • I can describe the criteria on which I will be assessed for the end of unit assessment.
  • I can create a Stakeholders Impacts chart using evidence from my research.
  • I can explain my position on DDT to my peers using evidence from my research.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Goldilocks Rule for Choosing Books
  • Who Are Stakeholders?
  • Stakeholders Impacts chart
  • Exit Ticket: Four Corners notecard


AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

     A.  Independent Reading (6 minutes)

     B.  Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2. Work Time

     A.  Where Are We Going? (5 minutes)

     B.  Mini Lesson: Who Are Stakeholders? (10 minutes)

     C. Creating a Stakeholders Impacts Chart: Who's Affected by DDT? (15 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

     A.  Where Do You Stand? Four Corners Activity (5 minutes)

     B.  Exit Ticket: Four Corners Notecard (2 minutes)

4.  Homework

     A.  Read to achieve your reading goal and complete the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.

  • In today's lesson, students consider if they selected an appropriate book for their independent reading. A good book selection contributes to achieving several reading purposes, including:

-   Engages and motivates students in learning things they care about

-   Promotes students' love of reading

-   Builds students' vocabulary

-   Builds students' knowledge about the world

-   Builds students' ability to read more challenging texts for longer periods of time

  • When unpacking the learning targets, read aloud and model effective speaking techniques as students prepare for their presentations at the end of the unit.
  • As students prepare for their End of Unit 2 Assessment: Presenting a Claim and Findings, inform them of the criteria guiding them as they prepare during the next few lessons.
  •  Throughout Unit 2, students have worked on several stages of the research process, including:

-   Reading a variety of texts

-   Identifying source information

-   Identifying claims or central ideas and evidence that support those claims

-   Comparing and contrasting different authors' presentation of information

-   Using different strategies to determine the meaning of research vocabulary 

-   Developing Cascading Consequences charts for different perspectives of the research question, "Do the benefits of DDT outweigh its harmful consequences?"

  • In this next stage of the research process, students identify the effects of DDT on stakeholders, which can be people, other organisms, or other components of the environment. This requires students to look closely at their understanding of their research. As students examine the impacts of DDT on stakeholders, they are challenged to bring in their values and consider different decisions.
  • At the end of this lesson, students consider their feelings about DDT as they prepare to write their own claim. Participating in the Four Corners activity again provides an opportunity for student to make a choice from a more personal perspective following this lesson's work.
  • In advance: Review the End of Unit 2 Assessment and the criteria that students will be evaluated on for their formal presentation of their research-based claims to an audience.
  • In advance: Prepare to introduce the Stakeholders Impacts chart and model the process of assessing the impacts of DDT on stakeholders. Remind students that the impacts can be either positive or negative.
  • Review claims and evidence that students listed on their Cascading Consequences charts to consider different stakeholders and both the beneficial and harmful effects of DDT on those stakeholders in each situation they used.
  • Post: Learning targets.


criteria, stakeholder, impact, position; logical, academic vocabulary, domain-specific vocabulary, redundancy



  • Goldilocks' Rule for Choosing Books (one per student)
  • Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes graphic organizer (one per student and one for display)
  • Document camera
  • Research folder
  • Presenting a Claim and Findings Criteria graphic organizer (one per student, in research folder)
  • Equity sticks
  • Who Are Stakeholders? chart (one per student, in research folder)
  • Who Are Stakeholders? chart (for teacher reference)
  • Stakeholders Impacts chart (one per student, in research folder)
  • Stakeholders Impacts Chart Assessment Rubric (teacher resource; one per student, in research folder)
  • Notecards (one per student)


OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Reading (6 minutes)

  • Entrance ticket: Goldilocks' Rule for Choosing Books.
  • Tell students that selecting a new book that feels just right is important. Explain that when they are reading a "just right" book, there are lots of benefits, such as building reading skills and learning about new perspectives.
  • Ask students to take a couple of minutes to do a Goldilocks self-check to see if they feel the book they picked out is "just right" for them.
  • For students who feel this way, tell them to join their triad partners who are available to briefly share reviews and opinions. If time allows, invite students to partner read if they are reading the same book or to continue reading on their own.
  • For students who would like to select a different book, provide guidance as they look for their "just right" book.
  • Distribute the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes graphic organizer.
  • Display the graphic organizer with the document camera as it is explained. Inform students they will use the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes for a few purposes:
  1. To keep track of their reading goals
  2. To explain what is happening in the book
  3. To respond to a question that interests them and share with their reading partners
  • Explain that using the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes is helpful for achieving their goals, having engaging discussions with their triad partners, and enjoying the independent reading.
  • Have students continue sitting with their triads as they unpack today's learning targets.
  • For students continuing to look for their "just right" book, suggest titles they might find interesting.
  • Focus on students who appear to have looked at inappropriate reading levels.
  • Some students may benefit from reading a paragraph or two aloud to determine if a book is right for them. 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Where Are We Going? (5 minutes)

  • Acknowledge the strong work students did on their Cascading Consequences charts. Explain the claims and evidence they documented will help them prepare for their presentations for the End of Unit 2 Assessment.
  • Direct students to their research folders and the Presenting a Claim and Findings Criteriagraphic organizers.
  • Use a document camera to display the Presenting a Claim and Findings Criteria graphic organizer as it is introduced. Ask students to refer to their own copy.
  • Tell students that as they prepare for the End of Unit 2 Assessment, they will consider what they've learned about benefits and harmful consequences of DDT. Explain that they will review research-based claims and supporting evidence to develop their own claim and present it to an audience.
  • Explain that they'll use a visual display as part of their presentation. Remind students that authors use a variety of strategies, including styles of introduction, ways of sharing information, and using text features to engage and inform readers about ideas. When speakers present information, using different strategies helps convey ideas to the audience.
  • Use equity sticks to call on students to read each of the criteria.
  • Define unfamiliar and learning target words to assure that students understand the criteria on which they'll be assessed. Include:

-   criteria--things that are used as a reason for making a judgment or decision

-   logical--sensible or reasonable process for sharing information

-   academic vocabulary--words relating to school or educational work (e.g., Cascading Consequences chart)

-   domain-specific vocabulary--words relating to a certain sphere of knowledge (e.g., words related to DDT, such as  pesticides)

-   redundancy--the act of using a word, phrase, etc. that repeats something already said and is therefore unnecessary

  • Explain that as students prepare for their presentations, working with partners helps develop their skills. As presenters, they practice and improve the criteria on which they are assessed. As listeners, they expand their understanding of the criteria, develop their own presentations, and help each other achieve.
  • Tell students they will have two ways to display important information visually: their Cascading Consequences chart, and a Stakeholders Impacts chart that presents important information in a different way. They will create the latter chart in this lesson.
  • Displaying the Presenting a Claim and Findings Criteriagraphic organizer benefits all students as they begin to develop their own claim and prepare to present for their End of Unit 2 Assessment.
  • When reviewing the graphic organizers or recording forms, consider using a document camera to display the document for students who struggle with auditory processing.

B. Mini Lesson: Who Are Stakeholders? (10 minutes)

  •  Post the word stakeholder. Ask students what they think the word stakeholder means. Listen for responses that help define the word such as:

-   Someone who has something to win or lose

-   Someone who is affected by something happening--maybe it's good or bad

  • Compliment students on their ideas. Share the definition:

-   stakeholder--someone or something that is involved in or affected by a course of action

  • Explain that the use of DDT involves and affects other people and things in both positive and negative ways. Stakeholders can be people, other organisms or living things, or components or parts of the environment.
  • Distribute a Who Are Stakeholders? chart to each student or refer them to their research folder for the chart.
  • Use a document camera to display the Who Are Stakeholders? chart. Ask students to share who they think stakeholders are when it comes to DDT. Model and add their responses to the appropriate column. Students should write the stakeholders on their chart.
  • Refer to the Who Are Stakeholders? chart (for teacher reference) to guide students as they consider who or what are stakeholders and how they are affected.
  • Congratulate students for their efforts in identifying various stakeholders. Explain that identifying who or what is affected by the use of DDT is an important step to considering how these stakeholders are affected by DDT.
  • Tell students they must now select some of the stakeholders they learned about in their research and look closely at how these stakeholders are affected. Remind them that the affects of DDT can be beneficial or harmful.
  • Some students may benefit from selecting fewer stakeholders to allow appropriate time to consider their own thoughts about DDT.

C. Creating a Stakeholders Impacts Chart: Who's Affected by DDT? (15 minutes)

  • Direct students to work with partners.
  • Distribute or direct students to find the Stakeholders Impacts chart in their research folder.
  • Use the document camera to display the Stakeholders Impacts chart and model how to complete it. Use the following example that describes something that happened in the novel Frightful's Mountain: Near the end of the book, Frightful migrates back to her home near Sam with another peregrine falcon named Drum. The year before, Drum's mate laid eggs that broke under her weight. Later the mate died from pesticide chemicals that had accumulated in her body.
  • Ask students who the stakeholders are in this example. Confirm that Drum and his mate are stakeholders, which are living things.
  • Call on students to identify how DDT or pesticides affected these two peregrine falcons. Model a response such as: "They were unable to hatch their eggs. The mother peregrine falcon died from accumulated pesticides."
  • Ask students if DDT or pesticides had positive or negative affects. Use a "+" or a "-" to record the response. Confirm that the affect was negative for the peregrine falcons.
  • Ask student to consider if this negative effect might have a different effect for other stakeholders. Ask them to consider stakeholders such as children living in certain areas of Africa. Guide students to consider benefits and consequences they have found in their research and what effects seem most important as they consider each stakeholder and respond to the questions.
  • Tell partners the first step is to select five stakeholders. Choose at least one stakeholder from each of the three columns on the Stakeholders Impacts chart. They should also choose stakeholders presented in articles and other sources they used to identify claims and evidence on both of the Cascading Consequences charts, benefits and harmful consequences.
  • Direct partners to consider the impact in each column and record their responses.
  • Remind students that the last two columns ask them to consider their own values. Ask them to consider how important the impact of DDT on the stakeholder they are looking at is compared to the effects of DDT on stakeholders somewhere else.
  • Encourage students to decide how important that stakeholder is to their own thoughts about DDT as they compare benefits and harmful consequences.
  • Recognize students for their work to identify stakeholders. Commend them for considering their own ideas about the use of DDT.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Where Do You Stand? Four Corners Activity (5 minutes)

  • Tell students they will now have an opportunity to consider again where they stand on this issue. They will participate in the Four Corners activity again. Point out that today's work is important as they develop their own claims or ideas about DDT. Considering the stakeholders, or those affected in some way by the use of DDT, contributes to clarifying their own thoughts about DDT.
  • Post or point out the four pieces of chart paper with the different DDT choices located in different parts of the room.
  • Quickly review guidelines for participating in Four Corners.
  • Cold call or use equity sticks to select students to read each of the Four Corner choices:

-   DDT is beneficial and can be used for many reasons.

-   DDT is beneficial for preventing health problems and helping agriculture by killing pests.

-   DDT is only beneficial for preventing health problems like malaria and Lyme disease.

-   DDT is harmful and should not be used.

  • Direct students to stand near the choice they feel is closest to their personal thoughts and understandings from their research about DDT.
  • Invite a student from each corner to share their choice and an evidence-based reason that supports their thinking.
  • Ask all students to return to their seats. Distribute notecards.
  • Observe students' participation in the Four Corners activity and their written responses to identify students needing support in developing their claims and findings and begin preparing for their End of Unit 2 Assessment.
  • Review students' positions about DDT to help pair students with writing partners. Consider pairing students with similar claims so they can act as "thought partners." 

B. Exit Ticket: Four Corners Notecard (2 minutes)

  • Ask students to write the position they selected and their evidence-based reason on their notecard. Tell students to write their name on their card.
  • Collect notecards to review students' thoughts.


  • Read to achieve your reading goal and complete the Reading Tracker and Reviewer's Notes.

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