Interpreting and Connecting Information: Creating a Cascading Consequence Chart Using Frightful’s Mountain | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M4:U1:L9

Interpreting and Connecting Information: Creating a Cascading Consequence Chart Using Frightful’s Mountain

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can interpret information presented in different media and formats. (SL.6.2)
  • I can explain how new information connects to a topic, text, or issue I am studying. (SL.6.2)
  • I can use my experience and knowledge of language and logic to address problems and advocate persuasively. (SL.6.2a)
  • I can write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (W.6.1)
  • I can use evidence from a variety of grade-appropriate texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (W.6.9)

Supporting Targets

  • I can create a Cascading Consequence chart about Sam and
  • Frightful's interaction.
  • I can describe the expectations for participating in a Fishbowl discussion group.
  • I can use my Cascading Consequence chart for Frightful's Mountain to clarify the ideas I am presenting.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 8 (from homework)
  • Peregrine Falcon Facts anchor chart
  • Cascading Consequence chart for Frightful's Mountain

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

     A.  Engaging the Reader: Learning from Frightful's Perspective (8 minutes)

     B.  Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes

2. Work Time

     A.  Introducing Cascading Consequences Chart: Should Sam Interact with Frightful? (20 minutes)

     B.  Preparing for a Fishbowl Discussion: Understanding Expectations and Practicing (12 minutes)       

3.  Closing and Assessment

     A.  Exit Ticket: Reflection on Learning Targets (3 minutes

4. Homework

     A.  Finish reading Chapter 9, "Frightful Finds Sam." Complete Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 9.

  • In the second half of this unit, students build on work previously done with argument, claims, and evidence.
  • This module focuses on two of the steps in the Stakeholders Consequences Decision-Making process. In this lesson, students are introduced to the Cascading Consequences chart. It is a way for students to create a visual "map" of the consequences of a particular choice or course of action. They use this in order to take information from the text and begin to make sense of it. Students will continue to add to this chart over the course of the unit--including consequences that they learn about from the central text as well as those they learn about through their independent research. They will refer to this chart throughout the module for several important reasons, including to determine who the stakeholders are for the issue they are learning about and to use as a reference for writing about their position on the issue.
  • This Cascading Consequence chart will help students prepare for their Fishbowl discussion during their End of Unit 1 Assessment. Students will get more practice with the Cascading Consequences chart in Lessons 10 and 11, when they apply the decision-making strategy to the topic of DDT. The DDT Cascading Consequences chart will be the visual assessed at the End of Unit 1 Assessment.
  • With partners, students use their knowledge from Frightful's Mountain to help clarify Sam's interactions with Frightful. Thus, students first work on the Cascading Consequence chart with a familiar topic. The chart also serves as a way to continue to engage with the novel.
  • In this lesson, the teacher reads aloud part of Chapter 9. Reading part of Chapter 9 in class makes the homework assignment more manageable.
  • In advance:
  • Partner students. Arrange desks in groups of four for the Fishbowl discussion.
  • Read the article "Learning to Make Systematic Decisions," listed as a central text in the module overview. Note that this article is for teacher reference only, and is not used with students.
  • Preview the Cascading Consequences chart (teacher examples) to gain background knowledge of the decision-making strategy.
  • Review: Fishbowl protocol (Appendix 1).
  • Preview: Fishbowl protocol video (https://vimeo.com/54871334)
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

Cascading Consequences chart, interaction, expectations, clarify; bowstring trusses (97), aerie (100), macadam (101), brooding (102), aerial (103), tandem (103), cupola (102), accumulate (106)

Materials

  • Frightful's Mountain (book; one per student)
  • Peregrine Falcon Facts anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Sam Interacts with Frightful Cascading Consequences chart (for teacher reference)
  • Sam Does Not Interact with Frightful Cascading Consequences chart (for teacher reference)
  • Sam Interacts with Frightful Cascading Consequences chart (one per student; distribute just to one student in each pair)
  • Sam Does Not Interact with Frightful Cascading Consequences chart (one per student; distribute just to one student in each pair)
  • Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapters 2, 4, 5, and 7
  • Document camera
  • Fishbowl Assessment (one per student)
  • Fishbowl Discussion Partner Scoring Log (one per student)
  • Exit Ticket: Cascading Consequences Chart and Fishbowl Discussion (one per student)
  • Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 9 (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Learning from Frightful Perspective (10 minutes)

  • Begin students in their Frightful's Mountain triads.
  • Be sure they have their text, Frightful's Mountain. Ask students to share their responses to the homework focus question on Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 8.
  • Circulate during this discussion time to listen for students' discussions about the human impact on the peregrine falcon population. Give students specific positive praise for when they cite and analyze text during their discussions.
  • Bring the class back together. Invite groups to share their responses to the focus question.
  • Listen for several ideas to emerge from the reading of this chapter:

*   One human impact is utility companies. The wire placement on utility poles is such that peregrines and other raptors can be potentially electrocuted.

*   As a result of this design, the peregrine population has declined. If one wire could be lowered, peregrines would not be able to complete the circuit, causing their death.

*   In this chapter, Jon and Susan educate schools about this issue, and students decide to write letters to utility companies.

*   Another human impact involves Jon adding to Frightful's diet. Jon teaches Frightful to eat rats

*   With this diet change, Frightful can now help control the rat population of New York.

  • If students do not bring up these points, point them out as examples of the interaction between humans and the natural world.
  • Tell students they will discuss "Words I Found Difficult" later in the lesson.
  • Invite students to turn to Chapter 9, "Frightful Finds Sam," on page 92. Explain that because of the chapter's length, some of the chapter will be read aloud in class. Ask students to be ready to read along.
  • Begin reading on page 92 and stop on page 100, when Sam says "This might work ... Both of us free." Consider pausing to discuss the following vocabulary: bowstring trusses (97) (note the picture on page 98).
  • Invite students to share whole class. Add facts from Chapter 8 and the first part of Chapter 9 to the Peregrine Falcon Facts anchor chart. Guide students to consider how the vocabulary words might provide ideas for facts to add to the chart.
  • Set clear expectations that students read along with you. Hearing the text read and reading the learning targets will build fluency.

B.  Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Invite the class to read the learning targets with you:

* "I can create a Cascading Consequences chart about Sam and Frightful's interaction."

* "I can describe the expectations for participating in a Fishbowl discussion group."

* "I can use my Cascading Consequences chart from Frightful's Mountain to clarify the ideas I am presenting."

  • Underline the phrase "Cascading Consequences chart."
  • Tell students that a Cascading Consequences chart is a chart that shows series of outcomes or results that move toward different conclusions. Tell students they will create one of these charts about Sam and Frightful's interaction.
  • Underline the word interaction. Tell students that the prefix inter- means "between" or "among." Ask:

* "If inter- means 'between' or 'among,' what do you think interaction means?"

  • Invite students to share their ideas for a definition whole class. Confirm or correct the definition of interaction as "the action or influence of people, groups, or things on one another." For example, Sam and Frightful have many interactions. When they hunt, they interact or share their food.
  • Circle expectations and Fishbowl. Tell students that they will practice a Fishbowl protocol, which is a specific discussion protocol. Tell them the protocol will give expectations, or guidelines, to be successful in the discussion.
  • Underline the word clarify twice. Ask,

* "What is another word that you think clarify is related to?" Listen for students to share "clear" or "clarity."  Share that clarify means to make clear. Tell students the Cascading Consequences chart will be their visual aid, which will help them organize their information and make their ideas clearer in preparation for their Fishbowl discussion.

Work Time

Work Time

A. Introducing Cascading Consequences Chart: Should Sam Interact with Frightful? (20 minutes)

  • Share with students that in a modern society, people are always making decisions that deal with the needs of a growing population. For example, people are looking for ways to manage limited resources like land, energy, and water. Societies continually have to think about and discuss important issues. A question often considered with each issue is, "How does one balance the needs of humans against the needs of nature and its ecosystems?" Using a strategy such as a Cascading Consequence chart can provide an organized way to help people make wise decisions about important issues.
  • Explain to students that they will have a chance to practice this decision-making strategy using Frightful's Mountain. Share that in Chapters 1-8, two of the main characters struggle with decisions. One character, Frightful, is torn between staying with Sam or migrating with other peregrine falcons. Another character, Sam, is also torn between two decisions:  should he interact with Frightful and build a friendship or should he not interact with Frightful and let her live free like other peregrine falcons?
  • Tell students they will get an opportunity to build a Cascading Consequences chart about the decision Sam must consider.
  • Partner students (if you have an uneven number of students, one group can be a triad). Tell students that in each pair, one person will consider one decision Sam might make, and the other person will consider a different decision.
  • Give one person in each pair the Sam Interacts with Frightful Cascading Consequences chart. Give the other person in each pair the Sam Does Not Interact with Frightful Cascading Consequences chart.
  • Invite students to locate their Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapters 2, 4, 5, and 7. Explain that the responses to the focus questions for these chapters will help them think about Sam and Frightful's interactions and Frightful's interactions with other characters. These responses will help generate ideas to use for their Cascading Consequences chart. For example, in Chapter 2, Frightful forms a relationship with Chup. Ask students:

* "Why is this relationship important to Frightful?"  Listen for: "Frightful learns to feed and brood Chup's eyases and becomes a caring mother."

  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share: 

* "How does Sam's interaction with Frightful affect her instincts of being a mother?" 

  • Listen for: "If Sam does not interact with Frightful, Frightful develops the mothering instincts of peregrine falcons, or if Sam does interact with Frightful, Frightful does not develop the mothering instincts of peregrine falcons."
  • Direct students to their Frightful's Mountain Cascading Consequences chart. Use a document camera or a board to model how to write the consequence or outcome on their graphic organizer.
  • For the half of the class that has "Sam Interacts with Frightful," model drawing a line with an arrow and writing "Frightful Does Not Develop Peregrine Falcon Mothering Instincts." Then, for the other half of the class that has "Sam Does Not Interact with Frightful," model drawing a line with an arrow and writing, "Frightful Does Develop Peregrine Falcon Mothering Instincts."
  • Ask all students to draw a rectangle around their new consequence.
  • Ask students to Think-Pair-Share: 

* "What would be a result of the consequence, or outcome, we just wrote?"

  • If students need more help, probe:

* "What would be the result or outcome of Frightful developing peregrine falcon mothering instincts or not developing those instincts?"

  • From the "Sam Interacts with Frightful" group, listen for: "Frightful will not learn other peregrine falcon habits such as mating and caring for eyases."
  • From the "Sam Does Not Interact with Frightful" group, listen for: "Frightful will learn other peregrine falcon habits such as mating and caring for eyases."
  • Point out to students how one consequence leads to another consequence that leads to another consequence. This is what makes it cascading, like dominoes cascading as they run into one another.
  •  Circulate to listen for students' understanding of the connecting consequences or the cause/effect relationship.
  • Reconvene the class. Invite groups to share their responses.
  • Use a document camera to model drawing a line with an arrow and writing the next consequence, or result, with each group. Share with students that each consequence will likely have another line with an arrow drawn, connecting another consequence or outcome. Direct students to draw a rectangle around each consequence or outcome they add.
  • Ask partners to read the focus question and their responses to Chapters 4, 5, and 7. Invite them to try to find another consequence or outcome to add to their chart.
  • Circulate to support students. Provide other examples, if needed, to select groups. Topics could include migration and human impact on the peregrine's population. Notice students who are working cooperatively on this new skill and students who may need additional, small-group support.
  • After students have worked for 10-12 minutes, refocus students whole group. Use a document camera or a board to display an example of each Cascading Consequences chart (see example for teacher reference in supporting materials). Read through each chart with the class. Remind students that this is one possible example, but they should add to their own chart if they see new possibilities.
  • Congratulate students on their first practice of this decision-making strategy. Tell them they will get more practice in Lesson 10.

B. Preparing for a Fishbowl Discussion: Understanding Expectations and Practicing (12 minutes)       

  • Remind students that they will be using their Cascading Consequences chart in a Fishbowl discussion. Tell students that in order to understand the Fishbowl discussion, they will watch a short video.
  • Distribute the Fishbowl Video: Notice and Wonder graphic organizer to students. Tell students they will be watching a video that models something called a Fishbowl discussion. Tell them they will be expected to record their notices and wonders as they watch this video. Watch 3 minutes of the video (https://vimeo.com/54871334).
  • Refocus the class whole group. Ask students to Think-Pair-Share:

* "What did you notice about what the students in the inner and outer circles were doing in the Fishbowl protocol?"

  • Cold call partners for responses. Listen for: "Some students were discussing and some students were watching," or "Students were using notes and citing evidence from informational text to move discussion," or "Students were responding to a question."
  • Ask students:

* "What do you think students did to prepare for the Fishbowl discussion?"

  • Listen for: "Students organized their notes and came prepared with information to share."
  • Distribute the Fishbowl Assessment. Tell students this will be the recording form that you will use to assess them when they participate in a Fishbowl discussion in a future lesson. Read through the criteria on which students will be assessed.
  • Choose a group of four students to try out this Fishbowl. This group will serve as a model to help the other students better understand the expectations of this activity. Be purposeful in choosing which students will be a part of this, as it will take a certain level of confidence to be the first to try this out in front of their peers.
  • Share that during the Fishbowl, the inner circle (the four students) will be evaluated by the other students on four criteria: 1) asking questions to understand different perspectives, 2) referencing text and referring to evidence, 3) advocating persuasively about their topic, and 4) responding to questions with details that contribute to their topic.
  • Tell the fours students in the Fishbowl that they are going to get a chance to practice their Fishbowl protocol with the Cascading Consequences chart they filled out on Sam and Frightful's interaction. Explain the Fishbowl protocol will be used as an end of unit assessment, and that all students will get another chance to practice this type of discussion in Lesson 10.
  • Remind them today is practice and the Fishbowl discussion will not be assessed. Instead, the assessment criteria can be used as a guide to help them prepare for the End of Unit 1 Assessment.
  • Next, distribute the Fishbowl Discussion Partner Scoring Log. Tell students the outer circle (the rest of the class) will be there to support the inner circle partner. Read through the scoring log to clarify the outer circle's role in supporting the inner circle.
  • Tell outer circle students that, since this is practice, they do not have to complete the Fishbowl Discussion Partner Scoring Log, but they should use this as a reference for preparing for the End of Unit 1 Assessment.
  • Invite students in the Fishbowl to read through their Cascading Consequences chart and think about the consequences of Sam interacting with Frightful and Sam not interacting with Frightful.
  • Invite the inner circle partners to begin sharing their thoughts about the question:

* "Should Sam interact with Frightful?"

  • Remind students to refer to their chart, consequences, and outcomes, for supporting or not supporting Sam and Frightful's interaction. Remind them to ask clarifying questions and to give details, or evidence, from the text to support their thinking.
  • Also, ask outer circle students to be prepared to provide feedback after their discussion. Remind students in the outer circle to refer to their scoring log to be able to provide the inner circle with feedback.
  • Ask the inner circle probing questions, such as "If Sam interacts with Frightful, will she migrate?" or "If Sam does not interact with Frightful, will she migrate?"
  • After one minute, ask students in the outer circle to have a discussion with their partner about successes and challenges of the Fishbowl discussion. Outer circle partners provide a success and a goal for their partner.
  • Commend the four inner circle students for their willingness to participate in the Fishbowl discussion. Tell them this discussion strategy provides an organized way to share consequences or outcomes.
  • Share that Sam's difficult decision of whether to interact or not interact has a series of consequences he needs to consider. These consequences contribute to helping him make this important decision of whether to interact with Frightful or not interact with Frightful.
  • Remind students they will get more practice with the Fishbowl protocol in Lesson 10. Their topic or issue will be the benefits of DDT and its harmful consequences.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Exit Ticket: Reflection on Learning Targets (3 minutes)

  • Distribute the Exit Ticket: Cascading Consequences Chart and Fishbowl Discussion.
  • Ask students to be reflective and honest. Share that thinking back on our learning is a process successful students do.
  • Ask students to think about today's learning targets and complete a 3-2-1. Share that this feedback will provide information to guide Lesson 10.
  • Tell them this is their "ticket" to leave today's lesson.

Homework

Homework
  • Finish reading Chapter 9, "Frightful Finds Sam." Complete Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 9.

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