Identifying How Text Features Support Arguments: “The Exterminator” | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M4:U1:L6

Identifying How Text Features Support Arguments: “The Exterminator”

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can cite text-based evidence to support an analysis of informational text. (RI.6.1)
  • I can identify the argument and specific claims in a text. (RI.6.8)
  • I can use resources to build my vocabulary. (L.6.6)

Supporting Targets

  • I can identify the argument and specific claims in "The Exterminator."
  • I can evaluate the evidence used to support the argument and claims in "The Exterminator."

Ongoing Assessment

  • Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 6 (from homework)
  • Sidebar "Seriously Sick" glossary
  • Sidebar "Seriously Sick" glossary
  • Sidebar task card

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

     A.  Engaging the Reader: Learning from Frightful's Perspective (8 minutes)

     B.  Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

2. Work Time

     A.  Jigsaw Groups: How Do Text Features Contribute to an Argument? (15 minutes)

     B.  Vocabulary: Categorizing Words in the Text Features of "The Exterminator" (5 minutes)

     C.  Triad Discussion: Presenting Jigsaw Findings (5 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

     A. Reflecting on Learning Targets: Back-to-Back, Face-to-Face (5 minutes)

4. Homework

     A. Read Chapter 7, "Disaster Leads to Survival." Complete Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 7.

  • In previous lessons, students learned to determine an author's argument when reading informational text. They identified claims the author makes and found evidence that supports those claims. They identified the author's argument in the "John Stossel--DDT" video and the main text of "The Exterminator." Students have also been introduced to text features and to the idea that they contribute to the author's argument in a different way.
  • In this lesson, students read closely some of the text features to locate additional evidence that adds to the author's argument and claims in "The Exterminator."
  • Students also continue to identify and define scientific vocabulary in the text features. This is important as students get the gist and determine how the text features add to the author's argument.
  • In advance:

Read closely the text features. Prepare a task card to model finding evidence that contributes to the author's argument and identifying and defining scientific vocabulary.

  • Review Back-to-Back, Face-to-Face protocol and Fist to Five in Checking for Understanding Techniques (Appendix).
  • Post: Learning targets

Vocabulary

argument, claims, evidence, sidebars; symptoms, parasite, anemia, effective, prophylactic, preventive, toxic, tolerate, vaccine, species, life cycle, researchers, biotechnology, genes, genomes, genetic, organism, immune system

Materials

  • Frightful's Mountain (book; one per student)
  • Peregrine Falcon Facts anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)
  • Document camera
  • Map from Frightful's Mountain (one per student and one for display)
  • Projector
  • Website with Hudson River Bridges (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Bridges_over_the_Hudson_River)
  • "The Exterminator" article (from Lesson 4)
  • Sidebar task card (one per student)
  • Sidebar "Seriously Sick" Glossary (one per student using this sidebar)
  • Sidebar "Seriously Sick" Glossary: Word Wall placement (for teacher reference)
  • Sidebar "Killer Genes" Glossary (one per student using this sidebar)
  • Sidebar "Killer Genes" Glossary: Word Wall placement (for teacher reference)
  • Highlighters (one per student)
  • Sticky notes (two per triad)
  • Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 7 (one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Learning from Frightful's Perspective (8 minutes)

  • Be sure students have their text, Frightful's Mountain.
  • Commend students for joining their triads when they came into the room. Invite them to share their responses to the focus question for Chapter 6, "Frightful Finds the Enemy." Remind students of the focus question:

     * "Who is the enemy that Frightful encounters? Why do they want to capture Frightful?"

  • Students should include evidence from the text as they share who Frightful's enemies are and why they want to capture her.
  • As students share with their groups, listen for responses such as: "The enemies are poachers, Bate and Bud, who are trying to catch Frightful to sell her. On page 65, it says, 'He pointed to Frightful and said "twenty-five and twenty-five makes fifty thousand. Let's get her."
  • Ask students to share terminology they have added to "Words I Found Difficult." Triad members should collaborate to determine the meaning of the words and add definitions to the list.
  • Circulate to observe students' verbal and written responses. Acknowledge triads who are collaborating well to share evidence- based responses and determining the meaning of new words. Interact with students who need support. Model strategies for sharing responses and defining words.
  • Refocus students as a whole group. Invite triads to share their responses to the focus question with the class. Ask students what information about enemies or threats to the peregrine falcon could be added to the Peregrine Falcon Facts anchor chart.
  • Use a document camera to share the map from Frightful's Mountain. Explain that in the early 1970s, the peregrine falcon was nearly extinct in the eastern part of the United States. By 2008, there were more than 67 nesting pairs of peregrine falcons in the state of New York. Nearly all the bridges on the Hudson River now have nests. Use the map to point out the Hudson River.
  • Using a projector, introduce the Website with Hudson River Bridges that shows many of the bridges on the Hudson River: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Bridges_over_the_Hudson_River
  • By clicking on the name of any of the bridges, a photo and the location of the bridge is shared. Encourage students to help you mark a bridge location closest to where you live in the state and/or a place they have visited or have relatives.
  • Remind students that they will continue working on identifying argument, claims, and evidence in "The Exterminator." Invite students to think and wonder how maps could provide evidence that may contribute to an argument.
  • Some students may need help reading and understanding Frightful's Mountain. Consider pulling these students into small groups for guided practice with the focus questions and adding vocabulary to "Words I Found Difficult."
  • Some students may need help with the independent reading of the chapters in Frightful's Mountain. Consider providing a listening station with an audio version of the novel or guided reading support.
  • Adding visuals or graphics to the Peregrine Falcon Facts anchor chart can help students remember or understand key information. Examples could include illustrations of a peregrine falcon with labeled features, eyases, perches, a migration map, or a hemlock tree. These visuals or graphics could be added throughout the reading of the novel.
  • Using visuals or graphics to respond to focus questions and help define new terminology can also help students remember and understand.

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (2 minutes)

  • Students should be seated with their triads. Invite a triad to volunteer to read aloud the learning targets while the class silently reads along:

* "I can identify the argument and specific claims in 'The Exterminator."

* "I can evaluate the evidence used to support the argument and claims in 'The Exterminator."

  • Tell students that the learning targets should be familiar targets to them. Today they will meet this target by using text features in "The Exterminator." 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A.Jigsaw Groups: How Do Text Features Contribute to an Argument? (20 minutes)

  • Be sure students have their article, "The Exterminator." Tell students that they will work with the text features called sidebars in the article.
  • Remind students that they identified the sidebars and their titles in the Text Feature Scavenger Hunt (in Lesson 4). Tell students that they will now read closely the sidebars to see how they add to the author's argument.
  • Students will work in triads. Distribute sidebar task cards. Distribute Sidebar "Seriously Sick" Glossary sheet and Sidebar "Killer Genes" Glossary sheet.
  • Explain that half of the triads will closely read the sidebar titled "Seriously Sick." The other half of the triads will read closely the sidebar titled "Killer Genes."
  • Give directions:

1. Each group will read the sidebar twice.

2. During the first read, look for difficult vocabulary.

3. During the second read, look for claims and evidence that supports the author's argument.

  • Ask students in each group to take turns reading aloud as the other group members read along. Each student should read a paragraph. After each paragraph, the reader should pause so the triad can circle or, using a highlighter, highlight difficult vocabulary words.
  • Invite students to begin.
  • When students have finished reading the sidebar and highlighting the vocabulary, refocus the class whole group. Tell students to look at their Sidebar Glossary sheets to find definitions for words they circled.
  • Ask students to reread the sidebar independently for deeper understanding and to identify claims and evidence to support the author's argument.
  • Invite student to share the claims and evidence they found with their triad, using the sidebar task card to guide their work.
  • Tell students to evaluate the evidence and record if they felt it was sufficient.
  • Circulate to listen in and support students in their discussion.
  • Some students may need help identifying claims and evidence. Consider providing claim and evidence starters to help them frame their thinking.
  • Some students may need additional time to identify a claim and evidence. Consider providing just one paragraph from a sidebar for them to use.
  • Some students may benefit from having a claim identified on their task card and then looking for evidence to support that within the sidebar or using the caption of specific photograph. For example: A claim from the sidebar "Seriously Sick" could be that "Drugs to treat malaria are expensive." Those students could use the photo and the caption on page 4 of the children in the Kenya slum as evidence that supports that claim.
  • Other students may be able to identify claims and evidence to support the argument easily. Encourage these students to apply the same skills to another sidebar or to look closely at the photos and captions to add more evidence to their task cards.

B.  Vocabulary: Categorizing Words in the Text Features of "The Exterminator" (5 minutes)

  • After about 13 to 15 minutes, stop students in their work. Tell them you would like to spend a couple of minutes looking at the vocabulary they identified in the sidebars.
  • Ask the students to think:

* "Which categories on the Scientific Word Wall might the words might fit in?"

  • Ask the groups to share their thinking about the words within their groups.
  • Invite each triad to add at least two words to the categories on the Scientific Word Wall using sticky notes. Students may add the same words to Scientific Word Wall.
  • Clear up any confusion with categories as students add the words. Congratulate students as they correctly categorize new scientific terminology. Encourage them to refer to the Scientific Word Wall to help them understand other texts they will be reading and to build their vocabulary skills.

C. Triad Discussion: Presenting Jigsaw Findings (5 minutes)

  • Use a document camera to show the sidebar task card. Invite each triad to share a claim and evidence they found in their sidebar. Model filling out the sidebar task card as students share the claims and evidence they have identified. The claims and evidence students found in the sidebars should be similar to what other triads have found. Explain that the wording may be different, but the meaning is the same.
  • In "Seriously Sick," listen for claims such as: "If malaria isn't treated it can get worse," and evidence such as: "When malaria is untreated it can lead to anemia," or "It can cause blindness, brain damage, or death." Other claims in this sidebar could be: "Drugs are expensive," or "Preventive drugs are available."
  • In the sidebar, "Killer Genes," listen for claims and evidence such as: "Scientists have not found a vaccine to prevent malaria" (claim). Listen for evidence such as: "There are many different kinds of mosquitoes and parasites that cause malaria," or "So many different species make it hard to find a vaccine." Other claims in this sidebar could include: "Researchers are still looking for vaccines or solutions."
  • Ask students to share if they felt this was sufficient to support the author's argument. Explore how the claims and evidence in the sidebars contribute to making the author's argument in the main text strong. Ask if this information contributes to their own thoughts or position about DDT and malaria.

Closing & Assessments

Closing

A. Reflecting on Learning Targets: Back-to-Back, Face-to-Face (5 minutes)

  • Bring students back to the whole group. Spend a couple of minutes reflecting on their learning targets for the day. They will talk with a partner using the Back-to-Back, Face-to-Face protocol.
  • Invite students to stand up and place themselves back-to-back with the person next to them. Say: "One of today's learning targets was 'I can evaluate the evidence used to support the argument and claims in the article "The Exterminator."' Ask students:

* "What was difficult about this target?"

  • Give them a few seconds to think.
  • Tell students that when you say, "Face-to-face," they should face each other and share their thoughts.
  • After students have shared, say "Back-to-back" again to get students ready for a new question. Ask:

*"What part of this learning target did you feel successful with?" Again have students think and the turn face-to-face.

  • Circulate to sense what students struggle with and what they feel successful with.
  • Refocus the students whole group. Use the Fist to Five protocol, checking for understanding technique for students to assess themselves.
  • Make note of students who may benefit from small group work to reach these targets. Additional practice using an excerpt from "The Exterminator" will occur in Lesson 7. Students will be assessed on these targets in Lesson 8.
  • Preview homework.

Homework

Homework
  • Read Chapter 7, "Disaster Leads to Survival." Complete Learning from Frightful's Perspective: Chapter 7.

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