Learning from the Narrator’s Point of View: Introducing Flush | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M3B:U2:L1

Learning from the Narrator’s Point of View: Introducing Flush

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can analyze how an author develops a narrator or speaker's point of view. (RL.6.6)
  • I can make ethical connections between World without Fish and Flush. (RL.6.11)

Supporting Targets

  • I can make an ethical connection between World without Fish and Flush.
  • I can identify Noah's point of view of his father's situation using text evidence from the novel.
  • I can explain how Carl Hiaasen develops the point of view of Noah.
  • I can follow Triad Talk expectations when I participate in a discussion.

Ongoing Assessment

  • Point of View anchor chart: Chapter 1

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1.  Opening

A.  Engaging the Reader: Introducing the Novel (10 minutes)

B.  Unpacking Learning Targets (3 minutes)

2.  Work Time

A.  First Read: Chapter 1 (15 minutes)

B.  Identifying Noah's Point of View: Chapter 1 (10 minutes)

C.  Determining Author's Techniques for Developing Point of View (5 minutes)

3.  Closing and Assessment

A.  Previewing Homework (2 minutes)

4.  Homework

A.  Read Chapter 1 of Flush. As you read, mark the text with evidence flags to help you answer the focus question in your structured notes.

  • This lesson introduces students to the primary focus of this unit: point of view (RL.6.6). Students begin to identify the narrator Noah's point of view in Flush and analyze the techniques that Carl Hiaasen uses to develop it.
  • At the beginning of the lesson, students work in triads to guess the title of the book from visual and sound clues. Prepare pictures of a flushing toilet and a flushed face (can be found via internet searches) to display for students.
  • In this lesson, students are introduced to the novel by reading pages 1-3. They also revisit the concept of point of view, but this time the point of view of the narrator in a literary text, rather than the author of an informational text as in Unit 1. Together, the class completes an anchor chart as they analyze point of view in the first three pages of the novel. The anchor chart prepares students for the graphic organizer they will use in later lessons to independently analyze point of view. This lesson focuses on the character Noah and his point of view about his father's situation.
  • Help students distinguish between the basic meaning of "point of view" (e.g., "perspective") and the literary terms used to describe the point of view of a character (e.g., "first-person," "third-person"). These literary terms are addressed in a fourth-grade standard (RL.4.6), but may need to be reviewed with students. The basic meaning of point of view will be more heavily emphasized throughout this module.
  • The homework routine in this unit is similar to that in Unit 1. At the end of the lesson, students are given a structured notes handout on which to record their homework. Post or display the homework focus question at the conclusion of the lesson and instruct students to copy it down. You may prefer to have students copy the question and handout information into a journal rather than use the structured notes. In either case, establishing a routine will be important, as this homework structure will be repeated throughout the unit. The homework focus question is also on the reading calendar. Consider giving each student one baggie with evidence flags, rather than distributing new flags each day.
  • In advance:

-   Group students into triads who will work together to read, think, talk, and write about Flush and other texts. Be intentional in placing students in groups that are different from their previous triads.

-   Review pages 1-3 of Flush. Identify Noah's point of view of his father and the evidence from those pages that supports your claims.

-   Prepare the Point of View anchor chart (see supporting materials). Note that part of the chart will be co-created with students in this lesson and part of it will be co-created with students in Lesson 2.

-   Search the Internet to find an audio of the sound of toilet flushing.

-   Locate the Triad Talk expectations anchor chart created in Module 1.

  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

flush, point of view, evidence, first person, third person, omniscient, technique, synopsis, pitiful, smuggling, bail (1)

Materials

  • Triad Talk Expectations anchor chart (from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2)
  • Lined paper (one sheet per triad)
  • Image of a flushing toilet (one for display; see Teaching Notes)
  • Image of a flushed face (one for display; see Teaching Notes)
  • Sound of a flushing toilet (audio; to play for the whole group)
  • Flush by Carl Hiaasen (book; one per student)
  • Questions to Introduce Flush (one for display)
  • Questions to Introduce Flush (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Equity sticks
  • Flush word-catcher (one per student)
  • Dictionary (at least one per triad)
  • Point of View anchor chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time B; see supporting materials)
  • Point of View anchor chart (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Thought, Word, Action symbols (one for display)
  • Blue markers/pencils (one per student and one for teacher use)
  • Structured notes (one per student and one for display)
  • Evidence flags (at least three per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Reader: Introducing the Novel (10 minutes)

  • Post the list of new triads and invite students to get into their groups. Tell them that they will work with these students for the duration of this unit.
  • Review the Triad Talk Expectations anchor chart (from Module 1, Unit 1, Lesson 2).
  • Tell students that you are going to give them three clues to the title of the novel they are going to read. Tell students that the novel has a one-word title and they are going to try to guess what it is based on the clues. Distribute a piece of lined paper to each triad so they can record the words they think are possible titles, based on the clues they are given.
  • First show students the image of a flushing toilet. Ask students to discuss in triads:

*   "What do you see?"

  • Give triads time to discuss what they see and record possible single-word titles.
  • Next show the image of a flushed face. Ask students to discuss in triads:

*   "What do you see?"

  • Give triads time to discuss what they see and record possible single-word titles.
  • Next play the sound of a flushing toilet. Ask students to discuss in triads:

*   "What do you hear?"

  • Give triads time to discuss what they hear and record possible single-word titles.
  • Invite triads to discuss the images and the sound bite and choose a single word that they think might be the title of the novel. Cold call triads to share their ideas with the whole group. Congratulate those who guessed correctly!
  • Write the title of the novel Flush on the board and ask students to discuss in triads:

*   "You've just seen some images and heard some sounds that relate to the word flush. What does the word 'flush' mean?"

*   "Given this title and the work you did in Unit 1 about the ocean and fish depletion, what do you think this novel might be about?"

  • Cold call students to share their responses. Listen for students to explain that flush can mean to clean something, like flushing a toilet or flushing an illness out of your body, or it can also mean to go red, to have a flushed face. Student ideas about the novel have no right or wrong answer at this stage, as long as students can justify why they think the way they do based on the meaning of the word.
  • Distribute the novel Flush by Carl Hiaasen to each student. Focus students on the cover of the book. Ask them to discuss in triads:

*   "Based on the cover, what do you think this book will be about now? Why?"

  • Select volunteers to share their ideas with the whole group.
  • Invite students to look at the synopsis of the book on the back cover. Explain that a synopsis gives the reader an overview of what the book is going to be about. Read the synopsis aloud and ask students to follow along silently in their heads.
  • Display the Questions to Introduce Flush. Ask triads to discuss each question using text evidence from the synopsis.
  • Cold call a few triads to share their answers with the whole group. Use the Questions to Introduce Flush (answers, for teacher reference) to guide student responses. Ask students to discuss in triads:

*   "What problems do you think might arise from flushing human waste into the ocean?"

  • Select students to share their responses. Listen for students to suggest something like: "It's dangerous for humans to swim in and dangerous for sea life."
  • Heterogeneous groups support students in discussing and answering questions about texts.

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (3 minutes)

  • Invite students to read the learning targets aloud with you:

*   "I can make an ethical connection between World without Fish and Flush."

*   "I can identify Noah's point of view of his father's situation using text evidence from the novel."

*   "I can explain how Carl Hiaasen develops the point of view of Noah."

*   "I can follow Triad Talk expectations when I participate in a discussion."

  • Ask triads to discuss:

*   "What are the important words or phrases in the learning targets? Why do you think those are important?"

  • Cold call students to share their responses and circle the words and phrases they suggest. Make sure point of view and evidence are circled.
  • Focus students on the term "point of view." Ask triads to discuss:

*   "What does 'point of view' mean? Consider using equity sticks to select students to share their responses. Listen for them to explain that people have different ways of looking at things, and your point of view is your way of looking at things.

  • Tell students that in literature, every story is told from a point of view. It can be a first-person point of view, where the narrator is in the story and is the "I" or "me" telling the story; a third-person limited point of view, in which an author appears to know the thoughts and feelings of only one of the characters in a story, or a third-person omniscient point of view, in which an author captures the points of view of all the characters.
  • Learning targets are a research-based strategy that helps all students, especially challenged learners.
  • Posting learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. The learning targets also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. First Read: Chapter 1 (15 minutes)

  • Explain to students that Carl Hiaasen is a well-known author from Florida. He is known for writing adventurous stories that often make you laugh out loud. In Flush, he gets us thinking about pollution in the oceans with a clever tale of crime and mystery.
  • Ask students to follow along silently as you read the first few paragraphs and opening dialogue on page 1 up to, "'Thanks, Noah,' he said."
  • Ask triads to discuss:

*   "What do we know so far?"

*   "Who is the narrator of the story?"

*   "Is this first-person, third-person, or omniscient narration? How do you know?"

  • Refocus whole class and use equity sticks to call on a few students. Listen for students to explain that Flush is written in first-person because the narrator Noah speaks from the perspective of "I" as he tells the story.
  • Invite students to follow along silently as you read aloud to the bottom of page 3, up to, "Dad smiled. 'I believe you are, Noah.'" Ask triads to discuss:

*   "What do we know now?"

  • Select volunteers to share their responses with the whole group.
  • Distribute a Flush word-catcher to each student. Students should be familiar with word-catchers, but they may need to be reminded how to fill it out. Invite students to add any unfamiliar words from the first few pages of the novel to the word-catcher.
  • Refocus whole group. Focus students on the word pitiful. Ask:

*   "What root word can you see and hear in the word 'pitiful'?"

  • Cold call students to share their responses. Listen for students to say "pity." Ask:

*   "What does the word 'pity' mean?"

  • Consider using equity sticks to select students to share their responses. Listen for students to explain that when you pity someone or something, you feel sorry for them. Ask:

*   "So what do you think the word 'pitiful' means?"

  • Select volunteers to share their responses. Listen for students to explain that the word pitiful means in a sorry state. When someone is pitiful, it makes you feel sorry for him or her.
  • Students may also struggle with the words smuggling and bail, as they may not be able to figure out what they mean from context. Ensure that each triad has a dictionary and remind students that looking up words is another strategy for understanding the meaning of words you don't know when you are reading.

B. Identifying Noah's Point of View: Chapter 1 (10 minutes)

  • Remind students of the learning target:

*   "I can identify Noah's point of view of his father's situation using text evidence from the novel."

  • Explain that you want students to pay attention to Noah's point of view of his father's situation in what they have read so far. Ask students to discuss in triads:

*   "What is his father's situation?"

  • Select volunteers to share their responses. Listen for students to explain that his father is in jail because he sunk someone's boat.
  • Post this question and ask students to discuss in triads:

*   "What is Noah's point of view of his father's situation? How do you know? What does he do or say in the text to make you think that?"

  • Refocus whole group. Display the Point of View anchor chart. Focus students on the first two columns, Claim and Evidence. Explain that in their triads, students have already begun to make a claim about Noah's point of view of his father. They have also identified what he does or says in the text to make them think that, which is finding evidence.
  • Invite each triad to briefly orally share their claims and evidence with the whole group.
  • Record appropriate claims in the first column of the anchor chart and evidence cited in the middle column. Refer to Point of View anchor chart (answers, for teacher reference) for guidance.
  • Giving students the opportunity to discuss answers to questions in small groups before asking them to share with the whole group can ensure that all are able to contribute to the whole group discussion.
  • Anchor charts serve as note-catchers when the class is co-constructing ideas.

C. Determining Author's Techniques for Developing Point of View (5 minutes)

  • Draw students' attention to the final column on the Point of View anchor chart, Technique. Explain that technique is about how the author, Carl Hiaasen, develops point of view. Tell students that now that they have identified Noah's point of view of his father's situation, they are going to consider how Hiaasen conveyed that point of view. Review the learning target:

*   "I can explain how Carl Hiaasen develops the point of view of Noah."

  • Ask students to look at the first claim on the anchor chart and the evidence that goes along with it and then discuss with their triads:

*   "How did Carl Hiaasen develop this point of view? How is that point of view conveyed so that we understand it?"

*   "Is it through the narrator's words, thoughts, or actions? Is it through another character's words or actions?"

  • Select volunteers to share their responses. Listen for students to explain that in this excerpt we mostly understand Noah's point of view through what he says to his dad.
  • Display the Thought, Word, Action symbols and explain that we can color and text-code the Point of View anchor chart so that we can quickly see how Carl Hiaasen developed that point of view.
  • Explain that you are going to use blue when it is Noah, the narrator saying, thinking or doing something. If it were someone else saying, thinking, or doing something, we would use a different color to make it easy to see at a glance how the author has developed point of view.
  • In the Evidence column, underline the evidence in blue.
  • In the Technique column, draw word bubbles in blue and explain that you are doing so because they are Noah's words - what he is saying. See Point of View anchor chart (answers, for teacher reference) for guidance.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Previewing Homework (2 minutes)

  • Preview homework and distribute structured notes and evidence flags.
  • Tell students that each night they will have a point of view focus question for homework, based on the chapter they are reading. They are to record the chapter number, the question, the answer to the question, and evidence to support their answer in the appropriate columns.
  • Model for students how to fill in the focus question and chapter number for today's homework. (For example, write, "What is Noah's point of view of his father's crime?" in the Homework Focus Question column and write, "1" in the Chapter column).
  • Writing the focus question at the top of the structured notes will support students to recall their purpose for reading.

Homework

Homework
  • Read Chapter 1 of Flush. As you read, mark the text with at least three evidence flags to help you answer this focus question in your structured notes:

*   "What is Noah's point of view of his father's crime?"

  • Remember to record any new vocabulary on your word-catcher.

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