Narrator’s Point of View and Evidence of Author’s Perspective in Flush | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M3B:U2

Narrator’s Point of View and Evidence of Author’s Perspective in Flush

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In this unit, students are involved in a study of how an author develops point of view and how an author's perspective, based on his or her geographic location, is evident in his or her writing. Students will begin reading Carl Hiaasen's Flush (870L), a high-interest novel about a boy whose father has been arrested for sinking a casino boat that was polluting the ocean by pumping sewage into it. As they read the novel, students will also read excerpts of interviews with Carl Hiaasen in order to determine how his geographic location has shaped his perspective, and how his perspective is evident in Flush.

Through the close reading of these texts, students will learn multiple strategies for acquiring and using academic vocabulary. At the end of the unit, having read most of the novel, students will analyze an excerpt of text for evidence of Carl Hiaasen's perspective.

Big Ideas & Guiding Questions

  • How does an author develop the narrator's point of view?
  • How does an author develop the plot of a novel?
  • The geographic location of an author affects his or her perspective and can be evident in the work he or she produces.

Content Connections

This module is designed to address English Language Arts standards as students read a novel set in the present day about a man polluting the ocean with sewage from a casino boat in Florida and how local people try to stop him. However, the module intentionally incorporates Social Studies practices and themes to support potential interdisciplinary connections to this compelling content. These intentional connections are described below.

Big ideas and guiding questions are informed by the New York State Common Core K-8 Social Studies Framework:

Unifying Themes (pages 6-7)

  • Theme 3: Time, Continuity, and Change: History as a formal study that applies research methods. Reading, reconstructing, and interpreting events; analyzing causes and consequences of events and developments; considering competing interpretations of events.
  • Theme 4: Geography, Humans, and the Environment: Relationship between human populations and the physical world (people, places, and environments), impact of human activities on the environment, and interactions between regions, locations, places, people, and environments.

Social Studies Practices: Gathering, Using, and Interpreting Evidence, Grades 5-8

  • Descriptor 2: Identify, describe, and evaluate evidence of events from diverse sources (including written documents, works of art, photographs, charts and graphs, artifacts, oral traditions, and other primary and secondary sources)
  • Descriptor 3: Analyze evidence in terms of content, authorship, point of view, purpose, and format; identify bias; explain the role of bias and audience in presenting arguments or evidence


Each unit is made up of a sequence of between 5-20 lessons. The “unit at a glance” chart in the curriculum map breaks down each unit into its lessons, to show how the curriculum is organized in terms of standards address, supporting targets, ongoing assessment, and protocols. It also indicates which lessons include the mid-unit and end-of-unit assessments.

Texts and Resources to Buy

Texts that need to be procured. Please download the Trade Book List for procurement guidance.

Text or Resource Quantity ISBNs
by Carl Hiaasen
One per student
ISBN: 978-0375861253, 0375861254

Optional: Community, Experts, Fieldwork, Service, and Extensions


  • Invite local authors to talk with students about how their geographic location has affected their perspective and how that is evident in their work.
  • Invite a scientist to speak with students about the causes and effects of water pollution.



A study of local causes and effects of water pollution

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