Analyzing Point of View and Figurative Language: Chapter 1 | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA 2012 G6:M3A:U1:L2

Analyzing Point of View and Figurative Language: Chapter 1

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Long Term Learning Targets

  • I can determine the meaning of literal, connotative, and figurative language (metaphors and similes) in literary text. (RL.6.4)
  • I can analyze how an author’s word choice affects tone and meaning in a literary text. (RL.6.4)
  • I can analyze how a particular sentence, stanza, scene, or chapter fits in and contributes to the development of a literary text. (RL.6.5)
  • I can analyze how an author develops a narrator or speaker’s point of view. (RL.6.6)

Supporting Targets

  • I can find the gist of pages 15–16 of Dragonwings.
  • I can analyze how Laurence Yep develops Moon Shadow’s point of view of the “Land of the Golden Mountain” and the “demons.”
  • I can determine the meaning of figurative language.
  • I can analyze how the words affect tone and meaning.
  • I can explain how a passage contributes to a theme..

Ongoing Assessment

  • Gist annotated on sticky notes
  • Moon Shadow’s Point of View graphic organizer, Pages 15–16
  • Exit Ticket: How Does a Passage Contribute to a Theme?

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Reader: Chapter 1 of Dragonwings (3 minutes)

B. Unpacking Learning Targets (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Rereading Pages 15–16 of Dragonwings for Gist (10 minutes)

B. Analyzing Moon Shadow’s Point of View (15 minutes)

C. Analyzing Figurative Language and Tone (7 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Exit Ticket: How Does a Passage Contribute to a theme? (5 minutes)

4. Homework

A. Read Chapter 2 of Dragonwings. Answer this question in your structured notes:

* “What does Moon Shadow think about where the Tang people live?” Use evidence flags to identify three text details from across the chapter to support your answer. Code each flag as a thought, word, or action to show the technique that Laurence Yep used to convey Moon Shadow’s point of view.

  • The primary focus of this unit is point of view, addressing standard RL.6.6. This unit also focuses on RL.6.4, analyzing the meaning and tone of figurative language. In this lesson, students build on their previous work on figurative language from Module 2.
  • Students are introduced to a Point of View graphic organizer that will support both their analysis of point of view of Moon Shadow and their analysis of tone and meaning of words. This builds directly on the Point of View anchor chart they began in Lesson 1. Students are introduced to this graphic organizer in segments over Work Time B and Work Time C.
  • In this lesson, students are reintroduced to the familiar routine of reading for gist and then analyzing the text. This routine will be repeated in Lessons 2–5.
  • The closing of this lesson focuses students on RL.6.5, asking them to explain how a passage contributes to the overall theme. Students are given the same theme and will see how it is developed over the course of Lessons 2–5 as well.
  • In advance: Read pages 5 and 15–16. Also read the answer key for the Point of View graphic organizer to familiarize yourself with what students will be doing and the answers you will need to guide them toward (see supporting materials).
  • Review the Back to Back, Face to Face protocol (Appendix).
  • Post: Learning targets.

Vocabulary

point of view, gist, literal language, figurative language, simile, metaphor, personification; sewage, bilge, bay, fragrant, kinsmen, measurements (15), immigrants, courtyard, ornamentation (16)

Materials

  • Word-catchers (from Lesson 1; one per student)
  • Dragonwings (book; one per student)
  • Sticky notes (five per student)
  • Dictionaries (enough for students to be able to refer to as they are reading)
  • Point of View anchor chart: Chapter 1 (from Lesson 1)
  • Moon Shadow’s Point of View: Pages 15–16 (one per student and one to display)
  • Document camera
  • Moon Shadow’s Point of View: Pages 15–16 (answers for teacher reference)
  • Colored pencils/markers (red; one of each color per student)
  • Equity sticks
  • Exit Ticket: How Does a Passage Contribute to Theme? (Answer for teacher reference)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A.  Engaging the Reader: Chapter 1 of Dragonwings (3 minutes)

    • Ask students to discuss with their elbow partner:

* “What happens in Chapter 1?”

    • Listen for them to explain that Moon Shadow travels to the Land of the Golden Mountain with Hand Clap.
    • Remind students of the Back to Back, Face to Face protocol. After you ask a question, they should turn around when you say, “face-to-face.” They should turn away from each other when you say, “back-to-back,” and wait for the next question.
    • Direct them to bring their structured notes from homework, stand up, and pair up back-to-back.
    • Ask:

* “What is Moon Shadow’s point of view of the Land of the Golden Mountain after he arrives there?”

    • Tell students to turn face-to-face to share their answers, then go back-to-back again. Repeat this process for the next two questions:

* “What is Moon Shadow’s point of view of the demons after he arrives?”

* “What are techniques Yep uses to convey Moon Shadow’s point of view?”

  • Opening the lesson by asking students to share their homework makes them accountable for completing it. It also gives you the opportunity to monitor which students are not doing their homework.
  • Learning targets are a research-based strategy that helps all students, especially challenged learners.
  • Posting learning targets allows students to reference them throughout the lesson to check their understanding. The learning targets also provide a reminder to students and teachers about the intended learning behind a given lesson or activity.

B.  Unpacking Learning Targets (5 minutes)

    •  Invite students to get into triads and read the learning targets with you:

* “I can find the gist of pages 15–16 of Dragonwings.”

* “I can determine the meaning of figurative language.”

* “I can analyze how the words affect tone and meaning.”

* “I can explain how a passage contributes to a theme.”

* “I can analyze how Laurence Yep develops Moon Shadow’s point of view of the ‘Land of the Golden Mountain’ and the ‘demons.’”

    • Listen for them to explain that Moon Shadow travels to the Land of the Golden Mountain with Hand Clap.
    • Remind students of the Back to Back, Face to Face protocol. After you ask a question, they should turn around when you say, “face-to-face.” They should turn away from each other when you say, “back-to-back,” and wait for the next question.
    • Direct them to bring their structured notes from homework, stand up, and pair up back-to-back.
    • Ask:

* “What is Moon Shadow’s point of view of the Land of the Golden Mountain after he arrives there?”

    • Tell students to turn face-to-face to share their answers, then go back-to-back again. Repeat this process for the next two questions:

* “What is Moon Shadow’s point of view of the demons after he arrives?”

* “What are techniques Yep uses to convey Moon Shadow’s point of view?”

    • Remind students that they should be familiar with gist from their work in Modules 1 and 2, and with point of view from the previous lesson’s target.
    • Ask triads to discuss:

* “What is literal language?”

* “What is figurative language?”

* “What is tone?”

    • Refocus whole class and ask for volunteers to share their responses. Listen for and guide students to recall that literal language means exactly what it says, figurative language is describing something by comparing it to something else, and tone is the author’s or narrator’s attitude toward something in the novel.
    • Direct students to add these terms to their word-catcher, as they will be referring to them throughout the unit.
  • Opening the lesson by asking students to share their homework makes them accountable for completing it. It also gives you the opportunity to monitor which students are not doing their homework.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Rereading Pages 15–16 of Dragonwings for Gist (10 minutes)

    • Ask students to keep their word-catchers out, and also get out Dragonwings. Distribute about 5 sticky notes to each student. Tell them they are going to reread pages 15–16 of the novel for gist.
    • Ask them to turn and talk in their triad:

* “What are two specific things readers do while reading for gist?”

    • Refocus whole class and cold call a few students. Listen for and guide them to say that you ask questions of the text as you read, you annotate the text to explain what it is mostly about, and you determine the meaning of unknown words.
    • Tell students that they are going to reread from the top of page 15, starting with “The demons kept us locked inside a long, two-story warehouse,” and stop reading in the middle of page 16 after “… lived like prisoners without knowing they were in a prison.”
    • Ask them to read along silently as you read the first paragraph aloud. As with other read-alouds, remember that the purpose is to read the text slowly, fluently, and without interruption. Don’t stop to address comprehension or vocabulary issues, as these will be addressed later and stopping would interrupt the flow of the text.
    • Ask triads to discuss:

* “What is the gist of this paragraph? What is this paragraph mostly about?”

    • Listen for them to explain that it is mostly about what it was like for Moon Shadow being locked up in a warehouse for a week.
    • Model annotating the paragraph on a sticky note and sticking it in the margin.
    • Tell students that where possible, you would like them to read around unfamiliar words, looking for context clues to figure out what they mean; however, if they can’t figure out the meaning from the context, encourage them to use a dictionary. If they aren’t sure what the word means after looking for context clues and looking in the dictionary, they should leave the definition column blank to be discussed with the whole group later on.
    • Invite triads to work together to find the gist and record unfamiliar words on their word-catchers for pages 15–16.
    • Circulate and support students as they read. For those who need more support, ask them to practice telling you the gist of a section before they write it on a sticky note or in the margin.
    • Refocus students whole group and invite them to share any unfamiliar vocabulary words they found on pages 15–16, along with the definition. If they were unable to work out the definition from the context or find it in a dictionary, encourage other students to assist them with the definition. To keep things moving, if no one else knows what the word means, tell the class what it means. 
    • Students may struggle with these words, so be sure to address them here: sewage, bilge, bay, fragrant, kinsmen, measurements, immigrants, courtyard, ornamentation
    • Remind students to record new words on their word-catcher.
  • Asking students to identify challenging vocabulary helps them monitor their understanding of a complex text.
  • ELLs may be unfamiliar with more vocabulary words than are mentioned in this lesson. Check for comprehension of general words that most students would know.

B.  Analyzing Moon Shadow’s Point of View (15 minutes)

    • Refocus whole class. Ask a volunteer to re-read the point of view learning target to the class:

* “I can analyze how Laurence Yep develops Moon Shadow’s point of view of the ‘Land of the Golden Mountain’ and the ‘demons.’”

    • Explain that for the next several lessons, students are going to work on analyzing Moon Shadow’s point of view of different topics in the novel and how the author of the novel, Laurence Yep, develops this. Remind students that they began examining Moon Shadow’s point of view of the Land of the Golden Mountain and the demons in the previous lesson and for homework and have their structured notes to help them.
    • Ask students to refer to the Point of View anchor chart: Chapter 1 to discuss in triads:

*  “What do you already know about the techniques Yep uses to develop Moon Shadow’s point of view of the Land of the Golden Mountain and the demons?”

    • Cold call students for their responses. Listen for them to explain that Yep develops Moon Shadow’s point of view through the thoughts, words, and actions of Moon Shadow and also through the words and actions of other characters in the novel.
    • Display with a document camera, and distribute, Moon Shadow’s Point of View graphic organizer: Pages 15–16. Ask students to Think-Pair-Share:

* “What do you notice?”

* “What do you wonder?”

    • Point out that this organizer is similar to the Point of View: Chapter 1 anchor chart and that students will fill it out in a similar way.
    • Focus the class on the first paragraph on page 15. Ask triads to discuss:

* “Is there anything in this paragraph that tells me Moon Shadow’s point of view of the Land of the Golden Mountain or the demons?”

    • Select volunteers to share their responses. For sample responses, see Moon Shadow’s Point of View graphic organizer: Pages 15–16 (answers for teacher reference). Listen for students to explain that Moon Shadow sees the demons as being harsh. Record this in the first column of the displayed graphic organizer and invite students to do the same.
    • Ask triads to discuss:

* “What words or phrases really support this claim?”

    • Cold call students to share their responses. Listen for them to suggest: “The demons kept us locked inside a long, two-story warehouse for a week.… We were kept on the bottom story, where we slept and ate off the floors. All the time we smelled sewage and the bilge of the bay.” Record this in the middle column of the displayed graphic organizer and invite students to do the same.
    • Ask triads to discuss:

* “What is the tone and meaning I infer from these words?”

    • Consider using equity sticks to select students to share their responses. Listen for them to explain that, as this is mean and harsh treatment of people, the one word you will choose for tone is “sad” Record this word in the final column of the organizer and invite students to do the same.
    • Distribute colored pencils/markers. Ask triads to discuss:

* “Which techniques did Laurence Yep use to develop Moon Shadow’s point of view of the demons in this paragraph? Did he use Moon Shadow’s thoughts, words, and actions? Or the words and actions of another character?”

    • Listen for students to explain that he uses the thoughts of Moon Shadow. Underline the evidence in the middle column in red and draw a thought bubble next to it. Invite students to do the same.
    • Ask triads to discuss:

* “What are two strategies we used to analyze Moon Shadow’s point of view of the demons in that paragraph?”

  • Cold call a variety of students. Listen for them to suggest:
    • Reviewed my gist of the paragraph
    • Reread and skimmed parts of the passage
    • Asked myself questions about each column of the organizer: the claim, evidence, and tone
    • Wrote down my answers
    • Directly quoted text as my evidence
    • Debated word choice for tone in my head before writing
  • Explain that the next two paragraphs on page 15 are more evidence to support the claim that Moon Shadow sees the demons as harsh. Therefore, it isn’t necessary to continue adding more information about the claim to the graphic organizer.
  • Explain that you want to find evidence for a new claim about Moon Shadow’s point of view of the Land of the Golden Mountain and about the demons. Invite students to reread the first paragraph on page 16. Ask triads to discuss:

* “Is there anything in this paragraph that tells me Moon Shadow’s point of view of the Land of the Golden Mountain or the demons?”

  • Select volunteers to share their responses. There are two claims in this paragraph, so listen for students to explain that Moon Shadow sees the Land of the Golden Mountain as drab and thinks the demons live like prisoners. Record this in the first column of the displayed graphic organizer and invite students to do the same.
  • Ask triads to discuss and note ideas on their organizers:

* “What words or phrases really support the claim that Moon Shadow sees the Land of the Golden Mountain as drab?”

  • Cold call students to share their responses. Listen for them to suggest words and phrases from the text such as: “boxlike in shape,” “as if the demons hated fresh air but liked being shut up in something like a trunk,” “no ornamentation,” and “painted in dull colors—when they were painted at all.”
  • Record these words and phrases in the middle column of the displayed graphic organizer and invite students to do the same. Note that it is important that this is recorded on the displayed organizer, as students will be referring to it as an example of figurative language later on in the lesson.
  • Ask triads to discuss:

* “What words or phrases really support the claim that Moon Shadow thinks the demons live a sad and dismal life?”

  • Cold call students to share their responses. Listen for them to suggest: “The little boxlike houses seemed so drab to me that I even felt sorry for the demons who lived in them, for they lived like prisoners without knowing they were in a prison.” Record this in the middle column of the displayed graphic organizer and invite students to do the same.
  • Ask triads to discuss:

* “What is the tone you infer from the words about the houses?”

  • Consider using equity sticks to select students to share their responses. Listen for them to explain that Moon Shadow is disappointed about the houses. Record the word “disappointed” in the final column of the organizer and invite students to do the same.
  • Ask triads to discuss:

* “What is the tone you infer from the words about the demons living like prisoners?”

  • Consider using equity sticks to select students to share their responses. Listen for them to explain that Moon Shadow feels sorry for the demons, so the tone is “pity.” Record this word in the final column of the organizer and invite students to do the same.
  • Ask triads to discuss:

* “Which techniques did Laurence Yep use to develop Moon Shadow’s point of view of the Land of the Golden Mountain and the demons in this paragraph? Did he use Moon Shadow’s thoughts, words, and actions? Or the words and actions of another character?”

  • Listen for students to explain that he uses the thoughts of Moon Shadow. Underline all of the evidence in the middle column in red and draw a thought bubble next to it. Invite students to do the same.
  • Graphic organizers and recording forms engage students more actively and provide scaffolding that is especially critical for learners with lower levels of language proficiency and/or learning.
  • When reviewing graphic organizers or recording forms, consider using a document camera to display the document for students who struggle with auditory processing.
  • Providing models of expected work supports all learners, especially challenged learners.

C. Analyzing Figurative Language and Tone (7 minutes)

  • Explain that one of the ways authors share the thoughts and actions of characters is through figurative language and that Dragonwings has a lot of figurative language such as similes and metaphors. (If your students participated in M2A, make a connection to the work they did with figurative language when reading Bud, Not Buddy).
  • Invite the class to reread the figurative language learning targets with you:

* “I can determine the meaning of figurative language.”

* “I can analyze how the words affect tone and meaning.”

  • Ask triads to discuss:

* “Can you identify any figurative language in the notes you have taken? Remember that figurative language is when you describe something by comparing it to something else.”

  • Select students to share their responses. Listen for them to point out: “They were boxlike in shape, with no courtyards inside of them, as if the demons hated fresh air but liked being shut up in something like a trunk” and “They lived like prisoners without knowing they were in prison.” Circle these examples on your displayed model and invite students to do the same.
  • Ask triads to discuss:

* “So what kind of figurative language are these examples? How do you know?”

  • Cold call students for their responses. Listen for them to explain that they are both similes, because similes often use “like” or “as” to compare two things.
  • Ask triads to discuss:

* “So what do these phrases literally mean? Does it mean that the demons lived in trunks? Does it mean that they were prisoners?”

  • Consider using equity sticks to select students to share their responses. Listen for them to explain that it means the houses looked like they were small and dark, without any air. Because the houses reminded him of prisons, the people inside reminded him of prisoners.
  • Asking students to color code and add symbols to their text provides a clear visual reference for analysis.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Exit Ticket: How Does a Passage Contribute to a Theme? (5 minutes)

  • Display and distribute the Exit Ticket: How Does a Passage Contribute to a Theme?
  • Explain that the closing for the next several lessons is going to focus on another learning target. Invite students to read along with you:

* “I can explain how a passage contributes to a theme.”

  • Explain that, to meet this learning target, students will be making connections between small parts of the novel and a larger theme.
  • Tell students that one theme that runs throughout this novel is: “It’s hard to fit in when you move to live in another culture.”
  • Invite the class to read the passage displayed along with you.
  • Ask students to read the question on the exit ticket and discuss the answer in triads.
  • Invite them to record their answers on their exit tickets.
  • Collect students’ exit tickets to informally assess.
  • Using exit tickets allows a quick check for understanding of the learning target so that instruction can be adjusted or tailored to students’ needs during the lesson or before the next lesson.

Homework

Homework
  • Read Chapter 2 of Dragonwings. Answer this question in your structured notes:

* “What does Moon Shadow think about where the Tang people live? Use evidence flags to identify three text details from across the chapter to support your answer. Code each flag as a thought, word, or action to show the technique that Laurence Yep used to convey Moon Shadow’s point of view.

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