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ELA GK:S4:C25:L129

Chaining

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Daily Learning Target

  • Opening A: I can add or change a phoneme (sound) in a one-syllable spoken word to make a new word. (RF.K.2)
    • I can listen to a single-syllable word and pronounce the initial phoneme (sound) in the word.
    • I can listen to a single-syllable word and pronounce the final phoneme (sound) in the word.
    • I can listen to a single-syllable word and pronounce the middle vowel phoneme (sound) in the word.
    • I can change the initial sound in a spoken word and say the new word.
  • Work Time A: I can read and spell CVC words with the phonemes (sounds): /k/ for “c,” /k/ for “k,” /h/, /or/, /p/, /n/, /d/, /ar/, /t/, /m/, and /ər/.
    • I can say the sound that each consonant letter makes in words.
    • I can identify the short sound for each vowel.
    • I can tell what sounds are different when I look at two words that are spelled with some of the same letters.
    • I can read two words that are spelled with some of the same letters (example: “jump” and “bump”). I can repeat with more words with some of the same letters (example: “lump,” “lamp,” “limp”).

Ongoing Assessment

  • Observe students during Opening A. Determine whether they can isolate sounds in words and substitute the initial sound as directed and say a new word.
  • Observe students during Work Time A. Determine whether they can read and spell CVC word containing r-controlled sounds /ər/, /ar/, and /or/.
  • Record students’ progress on the Snapshot Assessment.

Agenda

Agenda

1. Opening (5 minutes)

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: Phoneme Substitution

2. Work Time (10 minutes)

A. Chaining: “horn,” “corn,” “cork,” “pork,” “pork,” “park,” “dark,” “dart,” “part,” “pert,” “perk,” “perm,” “term”

3. Closing and Assessment (2 minutes)

A. Reflecting on Learning

4. Differentiated Small Group Instruction and Rotations (40–45 minutes)

In Advance

  • Prepare the Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student).
  • Gather materials for differentiated small group instruction (see Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher).

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • Blend, segment, substitute, syllable, r-controlled vowel (bossy “r”) (L)

Materials

  • Sound board (drawn on the board, or enlarged and laminated for teacher use)
  • Sound boards (laminated or in a clear plastic sleeve; one per student)
  • White board markers (one per student)
  • White board erasers (one per student)
  • Articulatory Gestures chart
  • Snapshot Assessment (optional; one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Phonemic Blending and Segmentation: Phoneme Substitution

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of “I’m a Little Teapot”):

“We can say a new word by changing one sound. Replace /s/ with /r/, turning ‘sound’ into ‘round.’ We can change sounds at the beginning, the middle, or end. Then say our new word. Remember to blend!”

  • Begin the Phonemic Blending and Segmentation instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: “Did you know that we can make new words by switching one of the letter for another letter? This week we are going to continue to make words with bossy ‘r’ vowel sounds. The bossy ‘r’ changes three different letters to make the same sound! Play close attention to the letter we use and listen to see if the vowel changes.”

2. Teacher says and writes: “fern,” and students repeat.

3. Teacher says: “I know the first sound in the word ‘fern’ is …” (Wait for students to reply with /f/.)

4. Teacher says: “Right! The first sound in ‘fern’ is /f/.”

5. Teacher invites students to segment the initial sound from the final chunk: /f/-/ern/.

6. Teacher asks:

“What vowel do you see?” (“e”)

“What letter follows the vowel?” (“r”)

“What sound do you hear?” (/ər/)

7. Teacher says: “Yes! The ‘r’ bossed the ‘e’ around to change its sound.”

8. Teacher says: “If I replace the /f/ with the sound /b/ and the letter ‘e’ with a ‘u,’ I would say /b/-urn, ‘burn.’ Now let’s play together!”

9. Teacher says and writes: “burn,” and students repeat.

10. Teacher asks:

“What is the first sound in ‘burn’?" (/b/)

“What is the vowel you see?” (“u”)

“What letter follows the vowel?” (“r”)

“What sound do you hear?” (/ər/)

11. Teacher says: “Right! The letter ‘r’ changed the letters ‘e’ and ‘u’ to make the same sound.”

12. Teacher asks:

“What word do we have now?” (“burn”)

13. Repeat the process outlined in steps 2–10 with “bird” to “herd,” then “perk” to “lurk.”

  • Use the Articulatory Gestures chart as needed to support students’ ability to differentiate sounds.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Chaining: “horn,” “corn,” “cork,” “pork,” “pork,” “park,” “dark,” “dart,” “part,” “pert,” “perk,” “perm,” “term”

  • (Suggested transition song, sung to the tune of “I’m a Little Teapot”):

“Now let’s use some letters to make a word like ‘can.’ Replace the ‘c’ with the letter ‘d’ and now we have ‘Dan.’ We can do it at the beginning, the middle, or the end. Then we’ll read the new word. Remember to blend!”

  • Begin the Chaining instructional practice:

1. Teacher says: “Today we are going to use letters and sound boards to help us make and read words!”

2. Teacher displays sound board.

3. Teacher says: “I am going to say a word, and we will tap out the sounds we hear. For example, if I say the word ‘horn,’ we would tap /h/ /or/ /n/.” (Students tap with teacher: /h/ /or/ /n/.)

4. Teacher asks:

“How many sounds do we hear in ‘horn’?” (three)

5. Teacher says: “We will use a sound board to help us match letters to the sounds we hear. The sound board has three boxes.”

6. Teacher asks:

“Who thinks they know why there are three boxes?” (word has three sounds)

7. Teacher says: “Right! So we will place the letter for each sound in a box. I can say each sound as I tap on the sound boxes”:

      • /h/ (Teacher taps on first box.)
      • /or/ (Teacher taps on middle box.)
      • /n/ (Teacher taps on final box.)

8. Teacher says: “So as we say ‘horn,’ I’ll write the letter ‘h’ into the first box. That shows us that the first sound in ‘horn’ is made by letter ‘h.’”

9. Teacher asks:

“What is the second sound you hear?” (/or/)

10. Teacher says: “That’s right! The vowel sound we hear is an r-controlled vowel.”

11. Teacher asks:

“How many letters represent the middle r-controlled vowel?” (two)

12. Teacher says: “That’s right! The ‘r’ bosses the ‘o’ to make a special sound. I’ll write ‘or’ into the second box because two letters make the r controlled vowel sound.”

13. Teacher asks:

“What is the last sound you hear in ‘horn’?” (/n/)

14. Teacher says: “That’s right! I’ll write the letter ‘n’ into the last box. That shows us the last sound in ‘horn’ is made with the letter ‘n.’”

15. Teacher says: “Let’s slide our fingers under the word as we say each sound then read the word: /h/ /or/ /n/, ‘horn.’ Now you will get to make new words with your own sound boards and letters. All of our words will end with two consonants that have twin powers.”

16. Teacher distributes sound boards, white board markers, and white board erasers.

17. Teacher invites students to write the word “horn” on their sound boards, emphasizing proper letter formation.

18. Teacher guides students to slide their fingers under each letter, blending each sound to say “horn.”

19. Teacher writes “horn” on the board to begin a list of chained words.

20. Teacher says: “Now we’re going to make a new word just by changing the letters for one sound! Let’s replace /h/ with /k/ for ‘c.’”

21. Teacher asks:

“What letter do we need to erase?” (“h”)

“What letter do we need to replace it with?” (“c”)

22. Teacher and students erase the “h” and replace it with “c.”

23. Teacher invites students to read the new word by running their fingers under each box, making each sound and blending them to say “corn.”

24. Repeat steps 19–23, replacing the sounds/letters as needed to make the following suggested words as time allows: “cork,” “pork,” “park,” “dark,” “dart,” “part,” “pert,” “perk,” “perm,” “term.”

25. Teacher says: “Wow! Look at all the words we made today! Let’s read them together.”

  • Support students as needed to distinguish between the vowel sounds /or/, /ar/, and /ər/.
  • Support students by monitoring their ability to write “or,” “ar,” or “er” in the middle box to represent the r-controlled vowel.
  • Remind students of the thumb-tapping technique used in previous lessons: Tap the first phoneme by using the index finger and thumb, then move to middle finger and thumb for the middle sound, and to the ring finger and thumb for the final sound.
  • Remind students that the middle r-controlled vowel needs one tap because it makes one new sound.
  • After students slide their fingers under the letters to blend and say each new word, consider asking them to identify the vowel in the word and the sound it makes.
  • The suggested sequence of words in this lesson begins with a group of words that all share the vowel “or” (/or/) followed by a group that share the vowel “ar” (/ar/), followed by “er” (/ər/). If students have mastered all of the short vowel sounds and can easily distinguish one from another, consider choosing CVC words that require substituting medial vowel sounds more frequently (example: every other word).

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning

  • Emphasize that successful learners think about what they’ve learned and why it’s important. Consider using a metaphor, such as a baseball player learning to keep his or her eye on the ball to know exactly when to hit it.
  • Ask:

“How can we figure out the middle sound in the word ‘park?” (We can tap it out on our fingers/arms.)

“How might this help us with reading and writing?” (Responses will vary.)

  • For students who need additional support organizing their ideas: Provide sentence frames. Examples:
    • “When I say the words ‘horn’ and ‘corn’ I hear _____.”

Differentiated Small Groups: Work with Teacher

Suggested Plan: Teacher works with the Pre-Alphabetic and Partial Alphabetic groups. At this point in the year, the teacher may be ready to meet with three rather than just two groups per day. If so, the teacher should work with students in the Full and Consolidated Alphabetic phases at least once per week. The teacher may choose to guide students through the suggested independent activity or refer to the possible practice activities.

Note: Groups not working with the teacher at a given time should be engaged in purposeful independent rotation work. Refer to the Independent and Small Group Work guidance document (see K–2 Skills Resource Manual) for more details.

Pre-Alphabetic:

  • Practice activity: Word Slides.
    • Students work with teacher to make and decode new words by changing just the initial letter in a word.
      • Teacher says “ir” and models thumb-tapping to show the two letters make one sound /ir/.
      • Teacher shows the Word Slide displaying “-ir” as the middle vowel sound.
      • Teacher asks students to identify the letters that would change “dirt” to “flirt” by changing the middle and final sounds. Students identify the letters using the Keyword Letter Card.
      • Teacher shows students how to slide letters to reveal “b” and “m,” making the nonsense word “birm.”
      • Repeat this process to make and read the nonsense words on the Word Slide.
  • Consider having students practice letter formation by writing the words on lined paper.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Letter Mnemonic Keyword Cards
    • Word Slide (one per student)
    • Letter writing paper and writing utensils (optional; one per student)

Partial Alphabetic:

  • Practice activity: Word Slides.
    • Students work with teacher to make and decode new words by changing just the initial letter in a word.
      • Teacher says “ir” and models thumb-tapping to show the two letters make one sound /ir/.
      • Teacher shows the Word Slide displaying “ir” as the middle vowel sound.
      • Teacher asks students to identify the letters that would change “dirt” to “flirt.” Students identify the letter using the Letter Mnemonic Keyword Card.
      • Teacher shows students how to slide letters to reveal “b” and “m,” making the nonsense word “birm.”
      • Repeat this process to make and read the nonsense words on the Word Slide.
  • Consider having students practice letter formation by writing the words on lined paper.
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Letter Mnemonic Keyword Cards
    • Word Slide (one per student)
    • Letter writing paper and writing utensils (optional; one per student)

Full and Consolidated Alphabetic:

  • Practice activity: Word Slides.
    • Students make and decode new words by changing just the initial letter in a word.
      • Teacher shows the Word Slide displaying “-ir” or “-ar.”
      • Teacher shows students how to slide initial and end letters to make real and nonsense words.
      • Students repeat this process to make and read real and nonsense words.
  • Consider asking students to:
    • Write the words they make.
    • Sort them into “real” and “nonsense” words.
    • Write a story using the words they make.
    • Change the medial vowel to “e” and repeat the process.
  • Conference with students about Accountable Independent Reading.
  • Choose a lesson from the K–2 Differentiation Packets to extend the students’ learning. (Refer to the students’ assessment data and the Assessment Conversion chart to determine an appropriate lesson or group of lessons.)
  • Additional Supporting Materials:
    • Word Slide (one per student)
    • Additional writing paper and writing utensils (one per student)

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