Reading, Speaking, and Writing: Rainbows | EL Education CurriculumTEST2

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ELA GK:M2:U1:L10

Reading, Speaking, and Writing: Rainbows

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.K.1: With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.K.2: With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • W.K.2: Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
  • SL.K.1: Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL.K.1a: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
  • SL.K.1b: Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
  • SL.K.6: Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.
  • L.K.5: With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • L.K.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

Daily Learning Target

  • I can ask and answer questions about rainbows using the text Weather. (RI.K.1, RI.K.2, L.K.5)
  • I can talk about rainbows with my classmates. (SL.K.1, SL.K.1a, L.K.5)
  • I can use pictures and words to teach my reader a fact about rainbows. (W.K.2, L.K.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the Opening, monitor students’ understanding of making connections among multiple weather words as they connect the Interactive Word Wall words together. (L.K.5)
  • During Work Time A, listen for students to ask and answer questions about rainbows using the text Weather. (RI.K.1, RI.K.2)
  • During Work Time B, circulate and listen for students to answer the question about rainbows using information from the text read aloud in Work Time A or the Rainbow Facts chart. (L.K.6) As students become more independent in following the Science Talk guidelines, encourage them to focus on answering the question in greater detail. Continue to use the Speaking and Listening Checklist to monitor students’ progress toward SL.K.1, specifically SL.K.1a.
  • During Work Time C, circulate and observe students as they draw and write a rainbow fact. Notice whether their ability to remember and communicate a fact shows improvement from Lesson 9. Encourage students to use the resources posted in the room, such as the Rainbow Facts chart and Weather Word Wall, as a guide. (W.K.2, L.K.6)
  • During the Closing, listen for students to share their Rainbow Fact page with a partner. (SL.K.6)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Interactive Word Wall: Building Vocabulary (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Focused Read-aloud, Session 3: Weather, Pages 22–23 (10 minutes)

B. Science Talk: What Makes a Rainbow? (15 minutes)

C. Independent Writing: Rainbow Fact Page (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Interactive Writing: Class Weather Journal (5 minutes)

B. Pair Share: Rainbow Fact Pages (5 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • Similar to Lesson 9, students participate in the Interactive Word Wall protocol in this lesson to further emphasize a playful, flexible way for them to think deeply about how words are related and what they mean. Providing numerous opportunities to engage with vocabulary supports students to feel confident using content-related words (L.K.5, L.K.6).
  • At the end of Work Time A, students observe a rainbow made using simple household objects (a clear cup filled with water, a mirror, and a flashlight). As in previous lessons, authentic experiences with science concepts deepen students’ understanding of the texts read aloud and strengthen students’ overall understanding.
  • In Work Time C, students complete another fact page in their Meteorologist’s notebook. This writing activity provides them with an outlet for sharing the content knowledge about weather they have heard read aloud and discussed with their peers (W.K.2).

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • Students have now heard multiple excerpts from the text Weather (National Geographic Readers) read aloud. They also have used the information from the text to discuss, draw, and write about this content.
  • Continue to reinforce routines established in Lessons 1 and 9: Picture Tea Party protocol and Interactive Word Wall protocol. As needed, refer to the Picture Tea Party Protocol anchor chart and Interactive Word Wall directions to reinforce guidelines.
  • Continue to use Goals 1 and 2 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Students may continue to find the Interactive Word Wall protocol challenging, especially as greater responsibility is placed on them to make and describe connections between words. For students who may find this challenging, place them with a strong partner for the Opening. Alternatively, consider seating the student(s) close to you and partner with the student(s) yourself.

Down the road:

  • As students continue to hear information about weather read aloud, as well as record and discuss this content information, they are building their bank of weather knowledge. In Lesson 12, students will draw from this bank of knowledge to complete the Weather Fact Page Assessment.
  • In Lesson 13, students share their learning about weather with a small group and some class visitors. If you have not yet confirmed visitors, consider reaching out to include older students, colleagues or other school community members.

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Interactive Word Wall cards and arrow cards (see supporting materials).
    • Mystery photos for use during Work Time A (see supporting materials).
    • Weather Word Wall card for rainbow. Write or type the word on a card and create or find a visual to accompany it.
  • Distribute materials for Work Time C at student workspaces. This ensures a smooth transition into Work Time C.
  • Review the Picture Tea Party and Interactive Word Wall protocols. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Post: Learning targets, Science Talk Groups chart, class weather journal template, and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • If students were recorded during the Interactive Word Wall, Picture Tea Party, or Science Talk protocols in previous lessons, consider playing these recordings to remind students of the process.
  • Create a slideshow of the Mystery Photos: Rainbows images.
  • Create the Rainbow Facts chart in an online format, such as a Google Doc, for display and for families to access at home to reinforce these skills.
  • Students complete the Rainbow Fact page using word-processing software, such as Google Docs.
  • Students use speech-to-text facilities activated on devices or use an app or software like Dragon Dictation.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards K.I.A.1, K.I.B.5, K.I.B.6, K.I.C.10, and K.I.C.12

Important points in the lesson itself:

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by providing opportunities to use all language modalities to comprehend and apply their learning. This will reinforce content knowledge and English language development.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to keep pace with the lesson, as it moves more quickly than lessons they may be accustomed to from earlier in the year. Explicitly remind students of the work they completed in Lesson 9 to adapt them to the transitions, since this lesson is similarly structured.
  • In Work Time A, ELLs are invited to participate in a Language Dive conversation (optional). Students then apply their understanding of the structure of this sentence when completing their assessment at the end of the unit. Preview the Language Dive Guide and consider how to invite conversation among students to address the questions and goals suggested under each sentence strip chunk (see supporting materials). Select from the questions and goals provided to best meet your students' needs.
  • Create a “Language Chunk Wall”—an area in the classroom where students can display and categorize the academic phrases discussed in the Language Dive. During the Language Dive, students are invited to place the Language Dive sentence strip chunks on the Language Chunk Wall into corresponding categories, such as “Nouns and noun phrases” or “Language to talk about purpose.” Students can then refer to the wall after the Language Dive and during subsequent lessons. For this lesson, the categories are “Nouns and noun phrases,” “Verbs and verb phrases,” “Adjectives and language to describe,” and “Language to talk about location or direction.” Consider providing students with a Language Dive log inside a folder to track Language Dive sentences and structures,  and collate Language Dive note-catchers.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Invite students to use a similar structure to the sentence discussed in the Mini Language Dive as they write about and discuss facts about rainbows. (Example: “Rainbows are made of _____ in the sky.”)

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time C, distribute a partially filled-in copy of the Rainbow Facts page from the Meteorologist’s notebook. This will provide students with models for the kind of information they should enter while reducing the volume of work required.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): During Work Time A, students are introduced to the term rainbow. When defining rainbow, reinforce the concept of arc by inviting students to trace the shape of an arc in the air.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): During the Closing, students partner up to share their completed Rainbow Fact pages. When giving specific, positive feedback to students on sharing their work, encourage nonverbal participation by inviting them to share their observations as well. This will help construct a community of learners.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): During Work Time B, students talk about what makes a rainbow in their Science Talk groups. Before signaling for students to transition back to the whole group, provide support for self-regulation by giving a 2-minute warning and using a visual-time timer.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L);  Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

new:

  • storm, rainbow (T)

review:

  • connect, weather, temperature, rain, wind, sun, snow, droplet, light, heat, cloud (L)
  • droplet, sunlight, stripes (T)

Materials

  • Interactive Word Wall Protocol anchor chart (begun in Lesson 9)
  • Interactive Word Wall cards (from Lesson 9; class set)
  • Interactive Word Wall cards (new; teacher-created; two)
  • Arrow cards (from Lesson 9; class set)
  • Mystery Photos: Rainbows (one per student)
  • Picture Tea Party Protocol anchor chart (begun in Lesson 1)
  • “Learning Target” poem (from Module 1; one to display)
  • Rainbow Facts chart (new; co-created with students during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • Weather (National Geographic Readers) (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • Colors anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Weather Word Wall (begun in Lesson 1; added to during Work Time A; see Teaching Notes)
  • Weather Word Wall card (new; teacher-created; one)
  • Clear cup filled with water (one for teacher modeling)
  • Small mirror (one for teacher modeling)
  • Flashlight (one for teacher modeling)
  • Science Talk Protocol anchor chart (begun in Lesson 8)
  • Weather talking stick (from Lesson 8; one per Science Talk group)
  • Science Talk Groups chart (from Lesson 8; one to display)
  • Speaking and Listening Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources for Module 2)
  • Meteorologist’s notebook (from Lesson 2; one per student)
    • Rainbow Fact (page 5 of meteorologist’s notebook; one per student and one to display)
  • Pencils (one per student)
  • Class weather journal template (blank; from Lesson 1; one to display)
  • Ways We Share Our Work anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Conversation Partners chart (from Module 1; one to display)
  • Language Dive Guide (optional; for ELLs; for teacher reference; see supporting materials)
  • Sentence strip chunks (one to display, see supporting materials)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Interactive Word Wall: Building Vocabulary (10 minutes)

  • Gather the whole group of students.
  • Tell students they are going to participate in the Interactive Word Wall protocol again today, but this time they are going to use words related to clouds. Review the protocol as necessary, using the Interactive Word Wall Protocol anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Distribute the Interactive Word Wall cards and arrow cards on the floor in the middle of the whole group area, leaving space between the cards. Guide students through the protocol, clarifying any steps that were a challenge for them in the previous lesson.
  • As time permits, repeat this version of the protocol until all cards have been added to the chain.
  • Consider introducing a new guideline for the activity: “Continue taking turns until you have connected every word to some other word.”
  • Explain that this means the goal is to connect all of the words, just like the class did today.
  • When connecting the Interactive Word Wall cards, provide options for physical action and reinforce the meaning of connect by inviting students to hook their index fingers together and make a “click” sound. (MMAE, MMR)
  • For ELLs: Check for comprehension by inviting students to paraphrase the rationale for each connection in their own words. Restate or rephrase as necessary. (Example: “The sun gives heat. Cynthia, can you tell me, in your own words, why we connected sun and heat?”)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Focused Read-aloud, Session 3: Weather, Pages 22–23 (10 minutes)

  • Tell students they are going to use the Picture Tea Party protocol to view some mystery photos. Remind them that they used this protocol in Lesson 9 and review as necessary using the Picture Tea Party anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Distribute the Mystery Photos: Rainbows, and invite students to begin the protocol.
  • Refocus the whole group. Invite students back to the whole group area, and collect the mystery photos.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“Based on the images you saw in the mystery photos, what do you think we will learn about today?” (rainbows)

  • Direct students’ attention to the learning targets and read the first one aloud:
    • “I can ask and answer questions about rainbows using the text Weather.”
  • Remind students that they have learned about the sun and clouds using this text, and today they will use the information in this text to ask and answer questions about rainbows.
  • Invite students to take out their magic bows and take aim at the target while you recite the “Learning Target” poem aloud.
  • Direct students’ attention to the Rainbow Facts chart. Tell them that as they hear information about rainbows read aloud, they will record important facts about rainbows on this chart.
  • Display pages 22–23 of Weather.
  • Read the title on page 22 aloud, and then read the first sentence on page 22 slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption.
  • Define storm (a weather event where there may be a lot of rain, snow, or wind).
  • While still displaying the text, read the second sentence on page 22 aloud slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What are rainbows made of?” (sunlight and water droplets)

  • Review the definitions of droplet and sunlight.
  • Explain that a storm has a lot of rain, so sometimes you can see a rainbow in the sky after a storm because there is sunlight shining through the rain.
  • Emphasize that these are two important facts about rainbows and record them on the Rainbow Facts chart. (Rainbows are made of sunlight and water droplets; rainbows often happen after a storm.)
  • While still displaying the text, read the first sentence of page 23 aloud slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What do you think that sentence means?” (Rainbows make a stripe in the sky; rainbows have a lot of colors.)

  • Remind students that they learned about stripes when they studied attributes of toys in Module 1. Refer to the Colors anchor chart if needed.
  • Review the definition of stripes (lines of color that is different in color from the area around it).
  • Invite students to pretend to “paint bright stripes of color” in the air around them.
  • While still displaying the text, read the remainder of page 23 aloud slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“Which color of the rainbow do you prefer?” (Responses will vary.)

  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What does the information on this page teach us about rainbows?” (Responses will vary, but may include: There are lots of colors in a rainbow; rainbows make a stripe in the sky.)

  • Choose several important facts about rainbows that were shared to record on the Rainbow Facts chart. (Examples: There are lots of colors in a rainbow. Rainbows make a stripe in the sky.)
  • Explain that one of the words learned in the read-aloud is so important it will go on the Weather Word Wall.
  • Show students the Weather Word Wall card for rainbow and follow the same process established in Lesson 1: provide its definition (a curved arc of light of many colors across the sky; rainbows are caused by the sun shining through drops of water during or after a rain), clap out its syllables, use it in a sentence, and place the Word Wall card and picture on the Weather Word Wall.
  • Explain that now students will see a real rainbow!
  • Invite students to move safely and quietly to the edge of the whole group meeting area.
  • In the middle, show students a clear cup filled with water, a small mirror, and a flashlight.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“Do you see anything here that we need to make a rainbow?” (water, light)

  • Explain that this rainbow will be made of water and light from a flashlight.
  • Place the small mirror inside the glass, tilting it at an angle.
  • Shine the flashlight into the cup toward the mirror. A rainbow will appear on the ceiling.
  • After defining rainbow, provide options for physical action and reinforce the concept of arc by inviting students to trace the shape of an arc in the air. (MMR, MMAE)
  • To facilitate students’ self-regulation skills, model socially appropriate ways to express enthusiasm/excitement about this new mission (e.g., silent cheer, give yourself a hug, take a deep breath and smile) before creating a rainbow with the water, mirror, and flashlight. (MME)
  • For ELLs: During or after Work Time A, lead students through a Language Dive (see supporting materials). Refer to the Language Dive Guide (for teacher reference). Display the sentence strip chunks.

B. Science Talk: What Makes a Rainbow? (15 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read the second one aloud:
    • “I can talk about rainbows with my classmates.”
  • Invite students to take out their imaginary bow and take aim at the target.
  • Tell students they will now participate in a Science Talk about rainbows in a small group. Remind them that they used this protocol in the previous lesson and review as necessary using the Science Talk Protocol anchor chart and reinforcing areas that were challenging for students.
  • Also remind students of how to use the weather talking stick to take turns speaking. Model using the talking stick and how to participate in the protocol, as necessary.
  • Post and review the question students will talk about in small groups today:

“What makes a rainbow?” (water droplets and sunshine; light shining through rain after a storm)

  • Move students into their Science Talk groups using the Science Talk Groups chart and invite groups to sit on the floor in a circle. Distribute weather talking sticks.
  • Refocus whole group.
  • Prompt all students to silently think about the question:

“What makes a rainbow?” (water droplets and sunshine; light shining through rain after a storm)

  • Provide a sentence stem:
    • “A rainbow is made of _______.”
  • Remind students to:
    • Take turns and listen when others are speaking.
    • Talk about the question.
  • Invite the students with the weather talking stick to begin. As groups begin to share, circulate and remind students of the directions using the Science Talk anchor chart as needed. Re-model passing the weather talking stick, answering the question, or waiting for a turn if needed. Also, consider using the Speaking and Listening Checklist (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • After 5–7 minutes, signal all students to stop speaking through the use of a designated sound, such as a chime or whistle.
  • Invite students to bring the weather talking sticks and return to the whole group area.
  • Briefly review the Science Talk anchor chart.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What is one thing you noticed another classmate in your Science Talk group doing well?” (Responses will vary, but may include: waited for his/her turn, listened when others were speaking, or talked about the question.)

  • Select a few volunteers to share out.
  • Prompt students to think about all of the facts they heard during the Science Talk and choose one fact about rainbows that they would like to draw and write about.
  • To support students’ self-regulation skills, use a visual timer and give a 2-minute warning before signaling for students to transition back to the whole group. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Create groups with varying levels of language proficiency. The students with greater language proficiency can serve as models in the group, initiating discussions and providing implicit sentence frames. If possible, consider grouping students who speak the same home language together to help one another interpret and comprehend the conversation in their home languages.
  • For ELLs: Display the sentence stem: “A rainbow is made of ______”, and reread it several times. Invite students to practice using it as a class before beginning the Science Talk. Provide alternative sentence stems drawn from the Language Dive. (Example: “Rainbows are made of _____ in the sky.”)

C. Independent Writing: Rainbow Fact Page (15 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read the third one aloud:
    • “I can use pictures and words to teach my reader a fact about rainbows.”
  • Prompt students to notice that they have learned many new facts about rainbows today. Refer to the Rainbow Facts chart and Weather text to reinforce as needed.
  • Remind students that yesterday, they created fact pages to share facts about clouds with their reader. Today, students will create another fact page about rainbows.
  • Display the Rainbow Fact page.
    • Point to the picture box and tell students that a picture to show a fact about rainbows can be drawn here.
    • Point to the words box/line and tell students that words to tell a fact about rainbows can be written here.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What picture will you draw to show your rainbow fact?” (Responses will vary.)

  • Refocus whole group and select a few students to share out.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What words will you write to tell your rainbow fact?” (Responses will vary.)

  • Refocus whole group and select a few students to share out.
  • Invite students to show a thumbs-up or touch their head if they are ready to begin drawing and writing their fact about rainbows.
  • Invite students showing the ready signal to move safely to their designated workspace and begin working with pencils on the Rainbow Fact page in their Meteorologist’s notebook.
  • Give students 10–15 minutes to write and draw. As they work, circulate and engage with them about their drawing and writing. Consider prompting students by saying and asking:

“Tell me what fact you are drawing/writing.”

“What fact are you drawing/writing?”

  • As needed, direct students to the Weather Word Wall and Rainbow Facts chart to support their work.
  • Signal all students to stop working through the use of a designated sound, such as a chime or whistle. Model cleanup procedures, keeping directions clear and brief. Consider reminding students to show responsibility with their materials and space when cleaning up.
  • Direct students to clean up their workspace and then walk safely to the whole group gathering area. Collect Meteorologist’s notebooks for use during the Closing.
  • Emphasize process and effort by modeling how to label the drawing on the Rainbow Fact page with a word with tricky spelling. Encourage students to sound out the word, try their best, and use environmental print if they get stuck. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Before students begin working independently, invite them to share some of the rainbow facts they discussed with their partners. Record and display some of the responses with quick sketches. Encourage students to think of their own facts and give them the option of using one of the recorded responses from the class if they are stuck.
  • For ELLs: While circulating, support students in writing complete sentences by prompting them to reflect on their work. (Example: “Hmm, this just says clouds. Can I learn anything by just reading that word? What can you tell me about clouds? I want to learn more!”)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Interactive Writing: Class Weather Journal (5 minutes)

  • Offer students specific, positive feedback on their drawing and writing. (Example: “I noticed you all took great care to make sure your drawings of rainbows were very detailed and accurate.”)
  • Display the class weather journal template. Remind students that because they are becoming weather experts, they are reporting on the weather, just like meteorologists do.
  • Follow the Interactive Writing: Class Weather Journal instructional practice from Lesson 5 to complete Parts 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the class weather journal template.

B. Pair Share: Rainbow Fact Pages (5 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and reread the third one aloud:
    • “I can use pictures and words to teach my reader a fact about rainbows.”
  • Tell students they will now share their Rainbow Fact page with a reader, another classmate.
  • Direct students’ attention to the Ways We Share Our Work anchor chart and briefly review it.
  • Return students’ Meteorologist’s notebooks and invite them to open to the Rainbow Fact page.
  • Referring to the Conversation Partners chart, invite students to partner up with their predetermined talking partner and sit facing one another. Make sure students know which partner is A and which is B.
  • Invite partner A to begin sharing his or her Rainbow Fact page.
  • Circulate and listen as students share.
  • If productive, cue students to listen carefully and seek to understand:

“Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?” (Responses will vary.)

  • Refocus whole group and signal partner B to begin sharing.
  • Refocus students and give specific, positive feedback on sharing their work. (Example: “Zaryn, I heard you reading the words on your fact page clearly to your partner, Jack.”)
  • When giving specific, positive feedback to students on sharing their work, encourage nonverbal participation by inviting students to share their observations as well. This will help construct a community of learners. (Example: “I heard Zaryn reading the words on her fact page clearly to her partner, Jack. You can say ‘me too’ in American Sign Language if you also heard a peer reading words clearly!”) (MMAE, MME)
  • For ELLs: As students interact, jot down some subject/verb agreement errors that are impeding communication. Briefly review the correct usage for the whole class. Encourage the group to identify the verb that communicates the message clearly and accurately. (Examples: “I heard some friends saying, ‘Rainbows is made of droplets.’ Let’s all say, ‘Rainbows are made of droplets’ together.”)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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