Focused Read-aloud, Session 1: What Does School Mean to You? | EL Education CurriculumTEST2

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ELA G2:M1:U1:L2

Focused Read-aloud, Session 1: What Does School Mean to You?

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.2.1: Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • RI.2.6: Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.
  • W.2.8: Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.2.1: Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL2.1a: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

Daily Learning Target

  • I can ask and answer questions about what school is and why it is important using key details from What Does School Mean to You? (RI.2.1, RI.2.6, W.2.8)
  • I can listen with care when I participate in conversations with my classmates. (SL.2.1a)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During Work Times A and C, use the Speaking and Listening Checklist to track students’ progress toward SL.2.1 (see Assessment Overview and Resources).

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Song and Movement: “What Is School?” Song (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Focused Read-aloud, Session 1: What Does School Mean to You? (15 minutes)

B. Independent Writing: What Is School? Notebook (10 minutes)

C. Making Observations: Evidence in Our Classroom (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Sharing Our Work (10 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In the Opening, students are introduced to the “What Is School?” song, which is sung to the tune of “Sing a Song of Sixpence.” This song reinforces ideas about what school is and why school is important in a fun and interactive way. Students sing this song throughout the module and will include it as part of their Celebration of Learning at the end of the module.
  • In Work Time A, students are introduced to a new text, What Does School Mean to You? Over the next two lessons, students complete focused read-alouds, answering text-dependent questions about the text after hearing it read aloud. These questions are found directly in the body of the lesson; they have a skill-based focus for reading and include fewer questions than a close read-aloud. The text was written by EL Education and includes quotes from students and teachers across the United States. Participating in this focused read-aloud sets a foundation of understanding about the module guiding question: “What is school, and why are schools important?” (RI.2.1, RI.2.6).
  • In Work Time A, students add to the Module Guiding Question anchor chart, introduced in Lesson 1. Not only do students add to this anchor chart throughout Unit 1, but they will also use it to guide their thinking and research in Units 2 and 3.
  • In Work Time B, students reflect on their learning from the focused read-aloud using their What Is School? notebook. As students continue to learn and develop new ideas about school, the notebook serves as a place to capture their thoughts and as a reminder of the evolution of their thinking.
  • In the Closing, students learn about the importance of sharing their work. Using the Sharing Our Work anchor chart, continue to reinforce the habits that create a productive environment for sharing and discussion. This is a routine that continues throughout the school year (SL.2.1). Note that it is used throughout EL Education K–2 modules and varies according to the rigor of the grade-level Speaking and Listening standards. Consider how familiar students are with this routine and reallocate time spent introducing it as necessary.

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • In Lesson 1, students were introduced to the norm “listen with care.” They revisit and practice that norm in this lesson.
  • In Lesson 1, students learned the module guiding question—“What is school, and why are schools important?”—and explored what they already knew about school. In this lesson, students begin to broaden their definition and understanding of school by participating in a focused read-aloud of What Does School Mean to You?

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • In the Opening, students are introduced to a new song. The tune may be unfamiliar to many students, and it may seem difficult to learn. Assure students that the song will be revisited and there is no pressure to learn it perfectly now.
  • In Work Time B, students write independently in their What Is School? notebook. To ensure that all students are able to write their ideas down, encourage them to use the Module Guiding Question anchor chart to help them spell words. Encourage them to add details to their drawing if writing is difficult or frustrating.
  • In Work Time C, students take a “tour” of the classroom to find evidence of how school is important. They may be unsure about what evidence would match their thinking about why school is important. Encourage students to work with a buddy or give them an example of something to look for during the tour.

Down the road:

  • This is the first of two lessons with opportunities to collect data on students’ progress toward RI.2.1 and RI.2.6 through the focused read-alouds.
  • Students add to the Module Guiding Question anchor chart in Work Time A. They will continue to add to this chart in subsequent Unit 1 lessons and will refer to it in Units 2 and 3.
  • This lesson reviews a couple of routines that will continue throughout the year. Students learn about sharing their work and begin processing their thinking through writing, which are two important routines for second grade.
  • This lesson reviews the norm “listen with care.” In Lesson 3, students add this norm to a Classroom Discussion Norms anchor chart. This anchor chart will be added to throughout the module. Each discussion norm will be based on a Speaking and Listening standard to help students understand the behaviors that will help them get to mastery (SL.2.1, SL.2.1a, SL.2.1b, SL.2.1c).

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • “What Is School?” song, by writing it on a large piece of chart paper (see supporting materials).
    • Instrumental version of “Sing a Song of Sixpence” to play for students during the Opening. This is meant to provide students with an understanding of the tune for the “What Is School?” song.
    • Module Guiding Question anchor chart, by drawing the table and filling in the left column (see supporting materials). Students will help fill in the right column during the focused read-aloud in Work Time A. Refer to the Module Guiding Question anchor chart (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Set up a document camera to display the “What Is School?” song and other documents throughout the lesson (optional).
  • Distribute pencils and the What Is School? notebook at students’ workspaces. Doing this in advance helps ensure a smooth transition during Work Time B.
  • Review the Think-Pair-Share protocol. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Post: Learning targets, “What Is School?” song, Module Guiding Question anchor chart, and Sharing Our Work anchor chart.

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive whiteboard or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Opening A: Record the whole group singing the “What is School?” song and post it on a teacher webpage or on a portfolio app like Seesaw for students to listen to at home with families. Most devices (cell phones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video and audio recording apps or software.
  • Opening A: Find an instrumental version of “Sing a Song of Sixpence” to play while students learn to sing the “What is School?” song.
  • Work Time A: If students were recorded during Think-Pair-Share in Lesson 1, consider replaying these recordings to remind students of the process.
  • Work Time C: Students take pictures on the tour using devices. Post on a teacher webpage, class blog, or on a portfolio app like Seesaw for students to talk about at home with families. Most devices (cell phones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free camera apps or software.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 2.I.A.1, 2.I.B.6., and 2.I.C.10

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to read informational text closely to determine key details that support their understanding of schools. This provides students with valuable experience reading and interpreting complex text, which will foster English language development by exposing them to academic vocabulary and syntax.
  • Some ELLs may find the independent writing activity challenging, as most of their prior work was heavily supported. If necessary, use additional prompting such as sentence frames and scribing. See below and the Meeting Students’ Needs column for further suggestions.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Before providing sentence frames or additional modeling during Work Time, observe student interaction and allow them to grapple. Provide supportive frames and demonstrations only after students have grappled with the task.

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time C, distribute a partially filled-in copy of page 2 from the What Is School? notebook. This provides students with models for the kind of writing expected and reduces the volume of writing required.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In the Role Play protocol, students are invited to act like characters in the book The Dot. Highlight and define the literary term character, connecting this term to other characters in familiar classroom library books.
  • Multiple Means of Action and Expression (MMAE): As students practice singing the “What Is School?” song with motions, provide options for expression by singing the song several times in different voices.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): During Closing B, students will have to read and interpret written questions in their notebooks. Foster collaboration and community by providing prompts that guide students in knowing when and how to ask classmates or teachers for help in reading these questions.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

New:

  • key detail (L)
  • dozen, suburb (T)

Materials

  • “What Is School?” song (new; teacher-created; see supporting materials)
  • Instrumental version of “Sing a Song of Sixpence” (audio; play in entirety; see Teaching Notes)
  • What Does School Mean to You? (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • What Is School? notebook (from Lesson 1; page 2; one per student and one to display)
  • Module Guiding Question anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; added to during Work Time A; see supporting materials)
  • Speaking and Listening Checklist (for teacher reference, see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Think-Pair-Share anchor chart (begun in Lesson 1)
  • Module Guiding Question anchor chart (for teacher reference)
  • Sharing Our Work anchor chart (new; teacher-created; see supporting materials)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Song and Movement: What Is School? Song (10 minutes)

  • Gather students whole group.
  • Display the “What Is School?” song.
  • Tell students that this is a song written about school, and they will sing it often to help them learn what school is and why it is important.
  • Tell students you are going to read the song aloud once without stopping and that they should follow along as you read.
  • While still displaying the text, read it aloud slowly, fluently, and without interruption.
  • Tell students you will now play an instrumental version of “Sing a Song of Sixpence” so they can hear the tune for the song.
  • Play the instrumental version of “Sing a Song of Sixpence” at least twice.
  • Tell students you will now play the instrumental version of the song again, and this time you would like them to hum the tune.
  • Play the instrumental version of the song again.
  • Without music, model singing each line. Invite students to sing each line after you.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What is one thing you heard in the song?” (Responses will vary, but may include thinking, working and playing.)

  • Invite students to prepare to think and work and play by pointing to their heads and saying, “Ready, set, go!”
  • For ELLs: For each phrase of the song for which students generate motions, check for comprehension about the meanings. Example: “When we appreciate qualities of others, what does that mean?” (We like different things our friends do and say.)
  • As students practice the song with motions, provide options for expression by singing the song several times in different voices. Invite students to try singing the song in a whisper voice, in a giant voice, and/or in an opera voice. (MMAE)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Focused Read-aloud, Session 1: What Does School Mean to You? (15 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the learning targets and read the first one aloud:

“I can ask and answer questions about what school is and why it is important using key details from What Does School Mean to You?”

  • Display What Does School Mean to You?
  • Tell students that they will hear this text read aloud today and will answer a series of questions about it, focusing on the text’s key details, or small and important clues.
  • Remind students that yesterday they came up with their own ideas about school.
  • Say: “I listened to and read through the ideas you wrote and drew about in your What Is School? notebooks, and I noticed that they all talked about school doing three things for us.”
  • Focus students on the Module Guiding Question anchor chart and point to the three bullets in the left column:
    • Build knowledge and skills
    • Foster character and relationships
    • Create high-quality work
  • Read the first bullet (“Build knowledge and skills”) and provide an example from student ideas from Lesson 1. (Example: “School helps us learn.”)
  • Repeat this process with the next two bullets, defining the word foster as “to grow and develop” when you come to it.
  • Say:

“The text What Does School Mean to You? has ideas of what other people around the country think school is and why it’s important. Let see what they have to say.”

  • Tell students that throughout their study of schools, they are going to learn from teachers and kids across our country and the world. Today they are traveling to several places in the United States through their reading, so they should put on their flying wings!
  • Invite students to spread their arms out like wings and pretend they are flying.
  • Invite students to land themselves back into their seats.
  • While still displaying the text, read it slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption.
  • Tell students you are going to reread some of the text and as you do, they should listen for new ideas about why school is important.
  • Return to page 3 and begin rereading.
  • Stop reading after “Some are small with only a few dozen students.”
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner, then select volunteers to share with the group:

“You may have heard the word dozen before. What does dozen mean?” (12)

  • Emphasize that a dozen is a small number compared to hundreds.
  • Draw students’ attention back to the text and continue reading.
  • Stop reading after “But there are some schools in suburbs.…”
  • Say:

“This text mentions schools being in a city, in a suburb, and in the country.”

  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner, then select volunteers to share with the group:

“What is a suburb, and how is it different from a city and the country?” (a community just outside a city; proximity and number of cars, buildings, and people differentiate the city, suburbs, and country)

  • If necessary, explain the difference between locations by using several volunteers to act as buildings. Place many volunteers close together to act as a city, invite a few to stand a bit further apart to act as a suburb, and invite just a couple to stand even further apart to act as the country.
  • Draw students’ attention back to the text and continue reading to the end of the page 3.
  • Remind students to listen for why school is important as you continue to read about what different students have to say about school.
  • Draw students’ attention back to the text and continue reading until the pages beginning with “Nubian says …” and “Josslyn says.…”
  • Tell students they are going to use the Think-Pair-Share protocol. Remind them that they used this protocol in the previous lesson and review as necessary using the Think-Pair-Share anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Guide students through the protocol using this question: “Why do Nubian and Josslyn think school is important?” (You can learn new and important things)
  • Circulate to listen as students share. Use the Speaking and Listening Checklist to gather initial data on students’ progress towards SL.2.1. Prompt them to share more of their thinking by asking:

“Could you say more about that?”

  • Reread the quotes from the book when necessary to help students develop their ideas.
  • Refocus whole group.
  • Say:

“When I was walking around, I heard a lot of people talking about why school is important for building knowledge, or what you know, and skills, or what you can do. I heard Juan say it is important to learn to read and write, and Lanya said you get to learn stuff you didn’t know before. I am going to take all of those ideas and write them on the Module Guiding Question anchor chart.”

  • Write “Learn new and important things” in the first row of the “school is important” column of the Module Guiding Question anchor chart. Refer to the Module Guiding Question anchor chart (for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Read the next quote in the book on page 7, “Solomon says....”
  • Invite students to Think-Pair-Share with an elbow partner, then select volunteers to share with the group:

“What kind of work does Solomon think is important at school?” (challenging, difficult, tough)

“Why would it be important for school to have you do hard work?” (It helps us learn. We think in new ways.)

  • Say:

“School sounds important because you do work that is hard and that helps you think in new ways. I’ll write that idea on our chart too.”

  • Write “Do work that is hard and makes your brain think in new ways” in the first row of the “school is important” column of the Module Guiding Question anchor chart. Refer to the Module Guiding Question anchor chart (for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Read the next two quotes, “Bryce says ...” and “Miles says.....
  • Invite students to Think-Pair-Share with an elbow partner:

“Why do Bryce and Miles think school is important?” (School can help you learn how to make your class and school a better, safer place)

  • Circulate to listen as students share. Prompt them to share more of their thinking by asking:

“Could you say more about that?”

  • Reread the quotes from the book when necessary to help students develop their ideas.
  • Refocus whole group.
  • Say:

“When I was walking around, I heard a lot of students talking about being nice or treating others well. It sounds like that is an important part of school that helps us build relationships. I’ll add it to the chart.”

  • Write “Learn to treat others well” in the second row of the “school is important” column of the Module Guiding Question anchor chart. Refer to the Module Guiding Question anchor chart (for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Offer students an air high-five for all the work they have done to figure out why school is important. Tell them that they will finish reading the book tomorrow.
  • For ELLs: Pair students with a partner who has more advanced or native language proficiency. The partner with greater language proficiency can serve as a model in the pair, initiating discussions and providing implicit sentence frames. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: To represent different types of communities, display full color photographs of urban, suburban, and rural areas. Ask students what they notice is similar and different about each photograph.
  • For ELLs: During the focused read-aloud, provide sentence frames for the Think-Pair-Share protocol. (Example: “Nubian and Josslyn think _____.”) (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: During the focused read-aloud, display the text on a document camera or display an enlarged copy of the text to help direct students to the appropriate sentences on each page. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Ask students about the meaning of the chunks of a key sentence from What Does School Mean to You?: “My school challenges me to learn by teaching me a topic and pushing me to use it in the real world.” Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Examples:
    • “Place your finger on the sentence: ‘My school challenges me to learn by teaching me a topic and pushing me to use it in the real world.’”
    • “What does this sentence mean?” (Responses will vary.)
    • Place your finger on the chunk: “My school challenges me to learn” and invite students to do the same.
    • Ask:

“What do you think it means to challenge someone? How does school challenge you to learn?” (To test, or to get you to do something that might be difficult; school challenges us to read, to write, and to think about new things.)

Place your finger on the chunk: “by teaching me a topic” and invite students to do the same.

    • Say:

“The word by here means that we are about to learn how school challenges Solomon.”

    • Ask:

“How does school challenge Solomon? What does it mean to teach a topic? What are some topics we learn about?” (School challenges Solomon by teaching him things. A topic is the thing or subject we learn about. Some topics are frogs, ducks, toys, and schools.)

    • Place your finger on the chunk: “pushing me to use it in the real world” and invite students to do the same. Ask:

“What do you think this chunk means? What does Solomon mean by pushing me to use it? What does Solomon mean by the real world?” (encouraging or helping me use the things I learn; places outside of school)

“How do you use the things you learn outside of school, in the real world? (Answers will vary, but may include: I tell my family about what I learned in school.)

    • Read the sentence in its entirety. Ask:

“Now what do you think this sentence means?” (Responses will vary.)

“What key details in the sentence help us understand how school is important?” (Responses will vary.)

B. Independent Writing: What Is School? Notebook (10 minutes)

  • Open to page 2 of the What Is School? notebook and focus students on the question:
    • “What did you learn from the book about what school is and why schools are important?”
  • Model and think aloud the process for answering this question by looking at the Module Guiding Question anchor chart. Say: “I remember we talked about school helping us develop relationships. I learned that school is an important place to build friendships and learn how to treat others nicely.”
  • Invite students to whisper into their hand something they have learned from the book about what school is and why schools are important.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“What did you learn from the book about what school is and why schools are important? What picture would you draw?” (I learned that school helps you think in new ways; I’ll draw a picture of a person learning about science.)

  • Tell students that their own copies of the notebook are already at their workspace.
  • Remind students how to transition back to their seats for independent work:
  1. Walk quietly, quickly, and safely to your seat.
  2.  Sit in your chair.
  3. Get a pencil from the bin and begin working right away.
  • Invite one or two students to use their wings to model flying safely, quietly, and quickly back to their seats.
  • Invite all students to use their wings to fly back to their seats and begin working.
  • Circulate and support students as they write. Give frequent time reminders and encouragement. Prompt students with reminders to use the Module Guiding Question anchor chart.
  • Give students a 1-minute warning before their writing and drawing time is done.
  • For ELLs: Display sentence frames to support students’ writing as they complete their notebooks. (Example: “I learned that school is important because ______.”) (MMAE)
  • Facilitate students’ self-regulation skills before they act out Vashti’s feelings by modeling how to manage feelings of excitement or silliness during this activity. Example: “Sometimes when I am making faces, it can make me feel a little silly. It’s okay that I feel that way, but I need to remember that we are acting out Vashti’s facial expressions to help us understand the book. If I get too silly, it might be hard for my classmates and me to understand the story. What are some strategies I can use if I start to feel silly during this activity?” (give myself a hug, press my palms together, take a deep breath) (MME)
  • When introducing the independent writing task, foster collaboration and community by providing prompts that guide students in knowing when and how to ask classmates or teachers for help. (Example: “While you are writing today, you might forget what the writing directions are in your notebook. That is okay! First, try your best to sound out the words in the question. If you are still stuck, there are many people in the room to help you. You can ask a classmate or raise your hand for a teacher to help you read the directions.”) (MME) 

C. Making Observations: Evidence in Our Classroom (15 minutes)

  • Refocus whole group.
  • Explain that students will now go on a slow, silent tour to see if they can find evidence (or clues) in their own classroom of why school is important. They will look for tools, work, signs, posters, books, or anything that can prove that their school does the important things they have learned about.
  • Model by telling the kids that you have written about how schools are important for helping kids learn to treat each other nicely. Walk slowly around the room, thinking aloud about the evidence in the room that proves school helps kids learn to treat each other nicely. (Example: “I see math books; those don’t really help kids act nicely. But I do see a poster that helps kids work out their problems together, so I think that will be my evidence! I will write it on the bottom of the page.”)
  • Tell students that they will move around the edges of the classroom so that everyone can see.
  • Invite students to take their pencil and What Is School? notebook and stand in a line on one side of the classroom. Lead the students on a slow walk around the perimeter.
  • Encourage students to stop and jot in their notebook when they have found evidence in their classroom.
  • After walking a complete circle of the room, lead students to the whole group area.
  • Direct students’ attention to the learning targets and read the second one aloud:

“I can listen with care when I participate in conversations with my classmates.”

  • Remind students that listening with care means their eyes and body are facing their partner to show that they are listening.
  • Tell students they will now listen with care as they share the evidence they saw in the classroom with a partner. Invite students to turn to an elbow partner and label themselves A and B.
  • Invite partner A to share with partner B the evidence he or she found in the classroom that shows why schools are important.
  • After 30 seconds, invite students to switch roles.
  • Refocus whole group. Give students specific, positive praise for their ability to listen with care while their partner shared. (Example: “I noticed Jessie kept his eyes on his partner while his partner read from his notebook.”)
  • For ELLs: Model and think-aloud the process of finding evidence and jotting down a note. (Example: “Oh, I just saw a trash can and it reminds me of how we clean up in school. I’m going to sketch a trash can now.”)
  • For ELLs: To ensure that the purpose of finding evidence is transparent, prompt students with a Conversation Cue: “Can you figure out why we are finding evidence?” (Answers will vary, but could include: to help us understand why school is important; to help us give examples of our ideas; to help us prove our ideas.)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Sharing Our Work (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to place their What Is School? notebook carefully in their lap or beside them.
  • Tell students that throughout the year, they will share their work with their classmates. Sharing their work is helpful because they get a chance to show off the hard work they have completed and hear new ideas from their classmates.
  • Direct students’ attention to the Sharing Our Work anchor chart.
    • Read through each bullet and give an example and non-example of each one. (Example: For “use a loud and proud voice,” speak confidently and then speak in a mumble.)
    • After each bullet, invite volunteers to share why it is important that we share our work in that way. (Example: It is important to share our work with a loud and proud voice because we want everyone to hear and learn from our ideas.)
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“If you are not sharing your work, what should you do?” (listen, face the speaker, think about what he/she is saying)

  • Select a volunteer to share his or her written response and evidence from the classroom from the What Is School? notebook with the group.
  • Remind students to demonstrate listening with care.
  • After their classmate has shared, encourage students to give him or her a round of applause for being a willing volunteer.
  • Reread the first bullet on the Sharing Our Work anchor chart:
    • “Use a loud and proud voice.”
  • Invite students to provide kind, helpful, and specific feedback to their classmate that relates to the first bullet. If the student did not speak loudly, for example, discuss as a class how listeners can use a signal to show the speaker that they cannot hear (cupping or pulling on the ear).
  • If time permits, repeat the process with another bullet on the Sharing Our Work anchor chart.
  • Tell students that you are excited to continue learning about school with them in the next lesson.
  • For ELLs: Beginning students may have trouble verbalizing their work. Help them to identify key elements of their What Is School? notebooks and allow them to repeat words and phrases. (Example: “It looks like write about friends. Can you say friends?”)
  • Before displaying a student’s piece of work, create an accepting and supportive classroom environment by encouraging students to respect others’ work and willingness to take a risk by sharing it with the whole class. (Example: “Jamil has agreed to share what he was working on in his What Is School? notebook. Sharing a piece of your own work with the whole class can feel a little risky, so we want to be respectful of his efforts. We are going to try to notice things that Jamil did well in his drawing and writing.”) (MME)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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