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ELA G1:M2:U2:L6

Close Read-aloud, Culminating Task: What Makes Day and Night

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.1.6: Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.
  • RI.1.7: Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.1.1a: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  • SL.1.1b: Build on others' talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
  • SL.1.4: Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
  • SL.1.6: Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.
  • L.1.1f: Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  • L.1.1i: Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
  • L.1.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Daily Learning Target

  • I can participate in a Science Talk about what makes day and night on earth using information from my notes as evidence.(RI.1.7, SL.1.1a, SL.1.4, SL.1.6)
  • I can record my observations from images/videos of the sky in my Sky Notebook. (W.1.8, L.1.1f, L.1.1i, L.1.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the Opening, observe students as they begin finding prepositions to describe the position of the sun, moon, and stars in the sky. (L.1.1i)
  • Collect students’ response sheets for the culminating task to serve as evidence of progress toward standards to inform instruction for subsequent lessons. (RI.1.1, RI.1.7)
  • During the Culminating Task in Work Time A, use the Reading Informational Text Checklist to observe students as they distinguish information they’ve learned from illustrations and from the words in text. (RI.1.6, RI.1.7)
  • During Work Time B, circulate and listen for students to participate in the Science Talk protocol positively by following the guidelines on the Science Talk Protocol anchor chart. Use the Speaking and Listening Checklist to monitor students’ progress toward SL.1.1a,b (see Assessment Overview and Resources).

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Learner: "Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars" Poem (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Close Read-aloud Culminating Task: What Makes Day and Night, Entire Text (25 minutes)

B. Launching Science Talk Protocol (20 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Independent Writing: Sky Notebook (10 minutes)

B. Shared Writing: Describing the Position of the Moon (5 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In Work Time B, students participate in a Science Talk. A Science Talk gives students the opportunity to answer questions about science ideas using a structured discussion format. As students speak and listen about science ideas, they build confidence in their language and discussion skills (SL.1.1a, SL.1.1b, L.1.6).

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • Students use their individual What Makes Day and Night notes from Lesson 5 during the Science Talk protocol. 
  • Continue to reinforce routines established in previous lessons: poem routine, shared writing, independent writing in the Sky notebook.
  • In Lessons 2–6, students reread parts of the unit’s anchor text as they grappled with the focus question: “What makes day and night on earth?” Now, in the culminating task, students are asked to synthesize their thinking by producing a visual diagram that helps answer the focus question. 

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • Some students might find the fine motor aspects of the culminating task challenging. For those students who have difficulty cutting and gluing, consider having precut icons available for students as well as tape for students to attach the icons to their diagram sheet.
  • Some students may need additional time to complete the culminating task. Consider reallocating time as necessary to complete the task.
  • During the Science Talk, students may find it difficult to wait their turn, listen to others, and stay on topic. If needed, refocus the whole group and remodel a specific desired behavior that is particularly challenging to students.

Down the road:

  • In Lessons 7–10, students will complete focused read-alouds of different texts, discussing new patterns in the sky. After each focused read-aloud, students will participate in either a science activity or a Science Talk to grow their knowledge about each of these new patterns.
  • Throughout Unit 2, students will continue to reflect on their progress toward showing integrity during group activities and discussions. Guide them toward more specific responses (e.g., “I showed integrity staying on task and listening to my triad during our Science Talk.”).

In Advance

  • Preview:
    • Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 5; for teacher reference).
    • Page 4 of the Sky notebook.
  • Strategically group students into triads for the Science Talk in Work Time B.
  • Review the Science Talk and Think-Pair-Share protocols. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Display moon photograph 4, in color if possible.
  • Post: Learning targets, “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem, and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Opening A: Record the whole group reciting the “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem and post it on a teacher webpage or on a portfolio app such as Seesaw  for students to listen to at home with families. Most devices (cellphones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video and audio recording apps or software.
  • Work Time B: Video record students as they take part in the Science Talk protocol to watch with students to evaluate strengths and areas for improvement. Post it on a teacher webpage or on a portfolio app such as Seesaw for students to watch at home with families.
  • Closing B: Create the Describing the Position of the Moon recording form in an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and complete, and for families.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.A.1, 1.I.B.5, 1.I.B.6, 1.I.C.10, 1.I.C.12, 1.II.B.4, and 1.II.B.5

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to synthesize their learning from What Makes Day and Night by completing a culminating task.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to understand and apply the structure and function of prepositions. Create a Prepositions Construction board to support the development of preposition meaning and structure. On the project display board, affix manipulative preposition cards with illustrations on one side of the board (examples: above, below, behind). On the other side, affix manipulative objects over a horizon, such as a tree, sun, and moon, and a sentence frame in the middle. (Example: “I observe the _____ [preposition] the ______.”) Model manipulating the sun and moon and then choosing a preposition that accurately describes the position of the objects in relation to one another, and completing the sentence frame. (Example: “I observe the moon above the tree.”)

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Support students as they distinguish information learned in the text and information learned with illustrations. Ask: “Did you learn how earth moves from the text, or did you learn that from an illustration? Can you show me which part of the text or which illustration helped you learn that information?”
  • During the Science Talk protocol in Work Time B, encourage students to use Goal 1 and 2 Conversation Cues with other students to extend and deepen conversations, think with others, and enhance language development. (Example: “Can you give an example?”)

For heavier support:

  • During the Science Talk protocol in Work Time B, provide students with individual copies of the anchor chart. In their groups, students can follow along by placing a finger on each step as it occurs. While circulating, ensure that students are following along accurately.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In this lesson, students listen to the poem “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars.” Some students may benefit from having an individual copy of the poem to follow along in near-point as it is read aloud. Support transfer of learning by offering multiple representations of the poem. Consider providing an annotated or illustrated copy of the poem for students as support for information processing strategy development and comprehension.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): The close read-aloud session in this lesson includes a rereading of the entire text. During this time, some students may benefit from sensory input and opportunities for movement while they are sitting. Provide options for differentiated seating such as sitting on a gym ball, a move-and-sit cushion, or a chair with a resistive elastic band wrapped around the legs.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): In Closing and Assessment A, students write independently in their Sky notebooks. Before students begin writing, consider creating a writing goal that is appropriate for the individual student. Place a star or sticker at the goal point so that they can self-monitor their progress as they write. For students who may need additional support in building writing stamina, consider offering built-in breaks, where students can choose an activity such as getting water or stretching.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

New:

  • preposition, depict, participate, Science Talk, triad (L)

Review:

  • discuss, observe (L)

Materials

  • “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (from Lesson 5; one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (example, for teacher reference)
  • Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 5; for teacher reference)
    • What Makes Day and Night (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
    • What Makes Day and Night anchor chart (begun in Lesson 3; see Close Read-aloud Guide)
    • What Makes Day and Night Culminating Task diagram (one for teacher modeling and one per student; see Close Read-aloud Guide)
    • What Makes Day and Night Culminating Task icons (one set per student; see Close Read-aloud Guide)
    • Reading Informational Text Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Scissors (one per student)
  • Glue stick (one per student)
  • Colored pencils (class set; variety of colors per student)
  • Pencils (one per student)
  • Science Talk Protocol anchor chart (new; teacher-created; see supporting materials)
  • What Makes Day and Night notes sheet (from Lesson 5; one per student)
  • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 4)
  • Speaking and Listening Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Moon photograph 4 (one to display)
  • Sky notebook (from Lesson 4; page 4; one per student)
  • Sky notebook (from Lesson 4; answers, for teacher reference)
  • Adjectives anchor chart (from Lesson 4)
  • Describing the Position of the Moon recording form(one for teaching modeling and one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Learner: “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” Poem (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to the whole group area.
  • Display the “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem; remind students that in the previous lesson they read this new poem about the sun, moon, and stars.
  • Tell students that you will read the poem first on your own as they listen, then they should echo each verse as you read it a second time. Remind students of the gestures and hand motions that they created in the previous lesson.
  • Read each verse of the poem aloud and stop at the end of each verse. Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group: 

What word(s) describe where we see the sun, moon, and stars in these verses?” (above and below)

  • Circle and/or highlight the prepositions in each verse as you continue to read the poem aloud. Refer to “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (example, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • After reading the final verse of the poem, tell students that they will continue to work with the poem over the next several lessons as they create an anchor chart of prepositions.
  • If time permits, invite students to read the poem with you one last time.
  • When teaching students about prepositions, consider varied ways to represent the function of the preposition. In addition to text, have students use an object to demonstrate its relationship to another object such as beside, on, behind, etc. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Introduce students to the Prepositions Construction board (see Supporting English Language Learners column) and model completing the sentence frame. Briefly invite a few students to practice using it. Alternatively, record and display a sentence frame and sketch the sun and moon in different positions for the class to see. Invite students to choose the correct prepositions to complete the sentence frame. (Example: “Is the moon above or below the horizon? Which preposition should I use? Good! So I will write, ‘The moon is [above] the horizon.”’)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Close Read-aloud Culminating Task: What Makes Day and Night, Entire Text (25 minutes)

  • Review the focus question by reading it aloud.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What makes day and night on earth?” (The sun shines on half of the earth; that half has day. The other half is in the shadow or darkness; that half has night.)

  • Tell students that today they will create a diagram that shows day and night on earth.
  • Guide students through the close read-aloud for What Makes Day and Night using the Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 5; for teacher reference). Consider using the Reading Informational Text Checklist (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • During the culminating task, refer to the guide for the use of:
    • What Makes Day and Night
    • What Makes Day and Night anchor chart
    • What Makes Day and Night Culminating Task diagram
    • What Makes Day and Night Culminating Task icons
    • Scissors, glue stick, colored pencils, and pencils
  • Refocus whole group.
  • Offer students specific, positive feedback on the close reading skills they used as they answered the focus question: “What makes day and night on earth?” (Example: “Everyone looked closely at the pictures in the text and listened to the text read aloud to answer the focus question and create their final diagram of day and night on earth.”)
  • During the culminating task, support fine motor skills and expression of knowledge by providing a scaffolded diagram. (Example: Offer pre-cut labels and shapes and/or include a line to denote the halves of the earth.) (MMR, MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Display a teacher or student-made model of the finished product of the culminating task so that students understand their goal. For heavier support, display the model throughout Work Time. For lighter support, display the model while providing instructions, but remove it as students complete their work.

B. Launching Science Talk Protocol (20 minutes)

  • Invite students to move safely to a spot on the edge of the whole group meeting area.
  • Direct students’ attention to the learning targets and read the first one aloud:
    • “I can participate in a Science Talk about what makes day and night on earth using information from my notes as evidence.”
  • Reread the target, emphasizing these words:
    • “I can participate in a Science Talk about what makes day and night on earth using information from my notes as evidence.”
  • Define the word participate (to take part).
  • Explain that talking about a science question with your classmates can help you learn more about science. This is called a Science Talk.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What does this learning target mean?” (We are going to have a Science Talk to discuss day and night on earth.)

  • Refocus whole group and invite a few students to share out. Clarify the meaning of the target as needed and tell students that they will now discuss “What makes day” and “What makes night” with a small triad using the Science Talk protocol. Tell students that triad means group of three.
  • Direct students’ attention to the Science Talk Protocol anchor chart and explain the expectations:
  1. Point to the first step on the  anchor chart. Tell students they will be assigned a triad. The three group members will need to sit in a circle facing one another.
  2. Point to the image of the ear. Explain that you will announce a question for the group to discuss and every group member needs to listen carefully.
  3. Point to the image of a person holding a paper. Tell students that they should consult their notes to find evidence to answer the question.
  4. Point to the image of one group member talking. Tell students that one group member should start by offering an answer to the question with some details.
  5. Point to the image of many group members talking. Tell students that they will use their notes to take turns responding to their group member’s answer. Each time they respond, they should try using a sentence starter.
  • Tell students that they will use the notes they completed in the previous lesson about “What makes day” and “What makes night.”
  • Distribute What Makes Day and Night notes sheets. Invite students to tuck their notes away quietly until they begin the Science Talk protocol.
  • Ask two student volunteers to help you model how to build onto a group member’s idea:
    • Sit or stand face-to-face with the volunteers and ask one volunteer:

“What makes day?”

  • After the student answers, think aloud: “I heard what she said. I will reread my notes to help me add new details to what she said. Let me think.”
  • Practice using the sentence starters to respond to the volunteer’s answer. Say: “I would like to add _____” or “This makes me think _________” or “I think he/she means _________.”
  • Turn to the second volunteer. Tell the class: “This partner has heard what Mary said and what I have said. Now he will think about what he wants to add on.”
  • Invite the second volunteer to respond using one of the sentence stems.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“How will you show your partner you are listening to him or her?” (use eye contact; answer the questions they ask me)

  • If productive, cue students to listen carefully and seek to understand:

“Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?” (Responses will vary.)

  • Direct students’ attention to the posted Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart and review what is written for integrity by reading it aloud.
  • Remind students to focus on showing integrity while participating in the Science Talk protocol. Students should continue to focus on following the steps of the protocol and work to stay on task.
  • Move students into pre-determined triads, assigning each group to a different area of the room.
  • Guide students through each step of the Science Talk protocol using the question:

“What makes night?”

  • Circulate to observe students as they discuss. Gather data on SL.1.1a, SL.1.1b, SL.1.4, and SL.1.6 using the Speaking and Listening Checklist. Prompt students with questions to help them expand on their ideas.
  • After 3–5 minutes, signal all students to stop talking and direct them to return to the whole group gathering area.
  • Briefly review the Science Talk Protocol anchor chart and invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What is one thing you did well during your Science Talk triad?” (Responses will vary, but may include: waited my turn, listened when others were speaking, used the sentence stems.)

  • Invite a few students to share out.
  • Share that today was their first Science Talk of many that they will participate in throughout this unit.  

  • As the Science Talk protocol is introduced, guide students’ information processing by inviting student volunteers to help model what this protocol looks like and sounds like. (MMR, MME)
  • For ELLs: Create groups with varying levels of language proficiency. The students with greater language proficiency can serve as models in the group, initiating discussions and providing implicit sentence frames. If possible, consider grouping students who speak the same home language together to help one another interpret and comprehend the conversation in their home languages.
  • For ELLs: Invite students to use language drawn from the Language Dive and Mini Language Dive practice from Lessons 3 and 5. (Examples: “As the earth spins, _______ move(s) through the _____, and back again.” “The earth is moving you ______.”)
  • For ELLs: It may take longer for some students to process language and follow the conversation during the Science Talk. Encourage students to speak up when they would like to hear something repeated. Empower them with questions they can ask to regulate the pace of the conversation. (Examples: “Can you please repeat what you said?” “Can you please speak more slowly?”)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Writing: Sky Notebook (10 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct their attention to the posted learning targets and read the second one aloud:
  • “I can record my observations from images/videos of the sky in my Sky notebook.”
  • Tell students that today they will write independently in their Sky notebook to describe a new moon photograph using adjectives from the Adjectives anchor chart.
  • Display moon photograph 4.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What adjectives describe the moon?” (Answers will vary, but may include: big, orange.)

  • Display page 4 of the Sky notebook and follow the same process established in Lesson 5 by reading the prompt aloud, encouraging students to use pictures and words to show their thinking, and reminding them to use the Adjectives anchor chart for their descriptions.
  • Circulate and support students as necessary. Encourage them to use classroom resources (Word Walls, high-frequency word lists, and alphabet or letter sound combination charts). Refer to Sky notebook (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • When 1 minute remains, signal all students to stop working through the use of a designated sound. Model cleanup, keeping directions clear and brief. Collect the notebooks.
  • Before students begin independent writing, support fine motor development by providing supportive tools for writing. For example, offer pencil grips, slanted desks, or alternate writing utensils. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: As groups of students interact, jot down some verb tense errors that are impeding communication. Briefly review the verb tense for the whole class. Encourage the group to identify the verb that communicates the message clearly and accurately. (Example: I heard some students say, ‘I show integrity.’ We are talking about earlier in class, so what should we say? That’s right, ‘I showed integrity.’”)
ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Shared Writing: Describing the Position of the Moon (5 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Remind them that in the previous lesson they observed a sun photograph and helped write about its position in the sky. Today students will examine at the moon photograph and help write about its position in the sky during shared writing.
  • Direct students’ attention back to moon photograph 4.
  • Display the Describing the Position of the Moon recording form and using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group.

“Where is the moon located in the photograph?” (over the building)

  • Tell students that they will have the opportunity to describe the location of the moon in the picture through shared writing.
  • Use the same procedure from Lesson 5 to complete the shared writing:

1. Point to the prompt at the top and read it aloud: "Where do we see the moon?"

2. Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Which picture most closely resembles the moon photograph?"

3. As students share responses, use their ideas to answer the prompt. Begin by circling one of the pictures that most closely resembles the location of the moon in the photograph and then model writing a complete sentence to describe the location of the moon. (Example: "The moon is behind the branch.")

  • If productive, cue students with a challenge:

“What if the moon was above the branch? How would that change the picture? I’ll give you time to think and discuss with a partner.” (The moon would be higher in the sky and we would not see the branch in front of it.)

  • Give students specific, positive feedback for their work helping to describe the position of the moon and tell them that in the next lesson, they will write about the position of the sun and the moon independently in their Sky notebook.

  • When using total participation techniques, minimize discomfort or perceived threats and distractions by alerting individual students that you are going to call on them next. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Briefly drill students using different prepositions. Invite students to manipulate the Preposition Construction board or sketch the moon using a dry erase marker. Challenge students to place or sketch the moon in the correct place while dictating prepositions. (Example: “Can you sketch the moon so it is above the branch?”)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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