Close Read-aloud, Session 4: What Makes Day and Night | EL Education Curriculum

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ELA G1:M2:U2:L5

Close Read-aloud, Session 4: What Makes Day and Night

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.1.2: Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.1.4: Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
  • RI.1.6: Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.
  • RI.1.7: Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.1.1a: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  • L.1.1f: Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  • L.1.1i: Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
  • L.1.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Daily Learning Target

  • I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth. (RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, SL.1.1a)
  • I can record my observations from images/videos of the sky in my Sky Notebook. (W.1.8, L.1.1f, L.1.1i, L.1.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the Opening, observe students as they begin to find prepositions to describe where the sun, moon, and stars are in particular photographs. (L.1.1i)
  • During Session 4 of the close read-aloud in Work Time A, use the Reading Informational Text Checklist to observe students as they distinguish information they’ve learned from illustrations and from the words in text. (RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, SL.1.1a)
  • During Work Time B, circulate and observe students as they compile their individual notes on What Makes Day and Night. Watch for students to begin to synthesize their thinking about the first pattern in the sky they learned: light (day) and dark (night). (RI.1.2, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, W.1.8)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Learner: "Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars" Poem (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Close Read-aloud, Session 4: What Makes Day and Night, Pages 24–27 (15 minutes)

B. Independent Writing: What Makes Day and Night Notes (15 minutes)

C. Shared Writing: Reflecting on Unit 2 Guiding Question (10 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Independent Writing: Sky Notebook (10 minutes)

B. Shared Writing: Describing the Position of the Sun (5 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • This lesson contains many similar structures from Lessons 2–4. Take note of this and allocate and adjust time as necessary.
  • In Work Time A, students continue to answer the focus question: “What makes day and night on earth?” During Session 4 of the close read-aloud, students begin to synthesize their learning about the first pattern in the sky they learned: light and dark (RL.1.1, RL.1.3, RL.1.7, SL.1.2).
  • In Work Time B, students begin to take individual notes (in pictures and words) to capture their thinking in response to the focus question of the close read-aloud. Note-taking is a new and challenging skill, but an important one to start early. In this lesson, students record their notes using the What Makes Day and Night notes sheet. Some students may choose to copy from the What Makes Day and Night anchor chart and others may use mostly pictures or labels. Encourage all styles of note-taking and remind students about the importance of being able to read and use their notes later.

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • Students are introduced to a new poem, “What Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars,” which is used to reinforce the science content and introduce prepositions.
  • Continue to reinforce routine established in previous lessons: poem routine, shared writing, independent writing in the Sky notebook.
  • Students continue to focus on how to become an ethical person, specifically showing integrity. This builds on their work with respect in Unit 1, and with integrity in Lesson 4.
  • In Lesson 4, students began to write independently in their Sky notebook. During this lesson, students continue to write independently in their notebook as they describe the sun and moon using adjectives, but also are reintroduced to the instructional practice of shared writing as they practice writing about the position of the sun and moon using prepositions.
  • Students should use their thinking from the previous close read-aloud sessions to complete their independent writing during Work Time B.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • During the Opening, some students may need additional support understanding the definition of a preposition. Consider having several simple prewritten sentences with illustrations available to model. (Example: The dog was behind the door.)
  • Some students may need additional support with making the transition to more independent writing. Remind students to use the tools around the room such as the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall, the Adjectives anchor chart, and the High-Frequency Word Wall.

Down the road:

  • In Lesson 6, students will participate in a Science Talk using their notes from this lesson. Encourage students to be as thorough as possible so that their notes will be a helpful tool for the Science Talk.
  • In Lesson 8, you will need to display two to three strong student examples from the What Makes Day and Night notes sheet. Consider selecting and separating the exemplars ahead of time.
  • As students reflect on integrity in subsequent lessons, consider guiding them toward more specific responses (e.g., “I showed integrity by following the protocol and staying on task and not getting distracted.”).

In Advance

  • Preview:
    • Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 4; for teacher reference).
    • Page 3 of the Sky notebook.
  • Prepare What Makes Day and Night notes sheets on clipboards for Work Time C.
  • Display sun photograph 4 in color if possible.
  • Pre-distribute materials for the Closing at student workspaces to ensure a smooth transition.
  • Post: Learning targets, “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem, and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Opening A: Create the “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poemin an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and for families to access at home to reinforce.
  • Work Time C: Create the Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart in an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and for families to access at home to reinforce these skills.
  • Closing B: Create the Describing the Position of the Sun recording form in an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and complete, and for families.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.A.1, 1.I.B.5, 1.I.B.6, 1.I.C.10, 1.I.C.12, 1.II.B.4, and 1.II.B.5

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to read closely and interpret academic text. Students will apply and deepen their understanding of academic content using multiple modalities, including shared writing and note-taking.
  • ELLs may find this lesson challenging because it offers fewer opportunities to role-play, experiment, and interact with peers than prior lessons. Guide students in recalling their activities in prior lessons to help contextualize the discussions. Consider briefly modeling the flashlight experiment again to supplement the discussion about patterns in the sky with visuals and experiences.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Support students as they distinguish information learned in the text and information learned with illustrations. Ask: “Did you learn how the earth moves from the text, or did you learn that from an illustration? Can you show me which part of the text or which illustration helped you learn that information?”
  • During the Mini Language Dive, ask more open-ended questions to challenge students, spark discussion, and assess their knowledge. (Example: “What does this chunk tell us about patterns in the sky?”)

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time B, distribute a partially filled-in copy of What Makes Day and Night notes sheet. This will provide students with models for the kind of information they should enter, while relieving the volume of notes required.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): During the close read-aloud, support active information processing skills as students integrate new information with prior knowledge. Provide options for comprehension by linking to and activating relevant prior knowledge. For example, before reading, invite students to recall the information from previous interactions with the text. Consider providing students with a summary of the salient details from the text read thus far.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): In this lesson, students are invited to share ideas with the whole group. Support students in appropriately expressing knowledge and ideas. As students share out, provide options for expression and communication by using sentence frames. For example: “Day happens when the sun ___.” or “Night happens when ___.”
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): During independent writing, some students may need examples of how to problem-solve when they want to write a word with tricky spelling. Emphasize sustained effort and process by modeling how to sound out a word with tricky spelling and demonstrate how to use environmental print to support spelling accuracy.

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

Review:

  • earth, sun, day, night, spin (L)
  • daylight, midnight (T) 

Materials

  • “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 4; for teacher reference)
    • What Makes Day and Night (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
    • What Makes Day and Night anchor chart (begun in Lesson 3; see close read-aloud guide)
    • Reading Informational Text Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • What Makes Day and Night notes sheet (one to display and one per student)
  • Pencils (one per student)
  • Crayons (class set; variety of colors per student)
  • Colored pencils (class set; variety of colors per student)
  • Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2; added to during Work Time C; see supporting materials)
  • Sun photograph 4 (one to display)
  • Sky notebook (from Lesson 4; page 3; one per student)
  • Sky notebook (from Lesson 4; answers, for teacher reference)
  • Adjectives anchor chart (from Lesson 4)
  • Describing the Position of the Sun recording form(one for teaching modeling and one per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Learner: “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” Poem (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to the whole group area.
  • Remind them that in previous lessons they read a poem describing the sun, moon, and stars. Tell them that today, they will learn a new poem about the sun, moon, and stars!
  • Direct students’ attention to the “Where Are They? The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem.
  • Tell students that you will recite the poem first on your own as they listen. Say: “As I read the poem, I want you to think about what the poem is about.”
  • Read aloud the entire poem, slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption.
  • After reading the final verse of the poem, invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What is the poem about?” (where the sun, moon, and stars are in location to other things like buildings, ground, trees)

  • Remind students that there are different kinds of words and that they learned about nouns and verbs in Unit 1, and adjectives earlier in Lesson 2. Define the terms noun, verb, and adjective as needed.
  • Invite students to whisper a noun from the poem, “Where Are They: The Sun, Moon, and Stars”, into their hands. Then invite them to whisper a verb from the poem into their hands.
  • Affirm that this poem describes where sun, moon, and stars are in location to other things. Tell students that words that describe where things are located in relation to other things have a special name, prepositions. Define preposition (a word that describes the location of one thing in relation to another thing).
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What are some hand gestures, motions, or actions that go along with each verse of the poem?” (Answers will vary, but might include: lifting their arms slowly to show the sun rising up over the horizon, sun high in the sky, full moon coming up over buildings.)

  • Reread the poem aloud a second time and invite students to repeat each verse after it is read, using their own chosen gestures and hand motions. Tell students that they will continue to work with this poem over the next several lessons to describe where the sun, moon, and stars are located.
  • As students practice the poem with gestures, provide options for expression by echoing several times in different voices. (Example: Invite students to try repeating each verse in a whisper voice, in a giant voice, and/or in an opera voice.) (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Prepare students for their work with prepositions by asking them to identify words that tell us where the sun, moon, and stars are located. Example: “What are some words that tell us where the sun is?” (above, below, behind)

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Close Read-aloud, Session 4: What Makes Day and Night, Pages 24–27 (15 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:
  • “I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth.”
  • Tell students that today they will continue to investigate the pattern of light and dark on earth and how it affects our day. Explain that today they will read one last part and prepare to take notes about the pattern of light and dark on earth.
  • Invite students to take out their imaginary bow and to take aim at the target.
  • Guide students through the close read-aloud for What Makes Day and Night using the Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 4; for teacher reference). Consider using the Reading Informational Text Checklist (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • During Session 4, refer to the guide for the use of What Makes Day and Night and the What Makes Day and Night anchor chart.
  • Refocus whole group.
  • Tell students that in the next part of the lesson, they will begin to take notes on what they have read.
  • Reduce barriers to comprehension by activating relevant prior knowledge of the learning target. Invite students to recall previous close read-aloud sessions in which they identified learning from the illustrations and from the text to describe light and dark on earth. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. Ask students about the meaning of the chunks from the sentence in the text: “The earth / is moving you / toward the sun.” Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Examples:

“What does this sentence mean?” Responses will vary.)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “The earth” and ask:

“What is this sentence about?” (the earth; the planet)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “is moving you” ask:

“What is the earth doing?” (moving us; spinning us around in space)

“How does the earth move us?” (When we stand on the earth, we move with it because it is spinning in space.)

    • Point to and read aloud the chunk: “toward the sun.” and ask:

Where is the earth moving us?” (Toward the sun; closer and closer to the sun)

 “What direction words, or prepositions, do you see in this chunk?” (toward; It means in the direction of something or closer to something.)

“What patterns does this sentence help us understand?” (The earth spins and moves us closer to the sun, and away again.)

“What, in the illustrations, help you understand that information? What, in the text, helps you understand that information?” (Responses will vary.)

“Now what do you think this sentence means?” (The earth spins us closer to the sun.)

“Can you use a direction word to complete the sentence frame: The earth is moving you ______?” (around in space; away from the sun; toward the light)

B. Independent Writing: What Makes Day and Night Notes (15 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct their attention back to the first learning target and reread it aloud:
  • “I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to take notes on the pattern of light and dark on earth.”
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from group:

“What does it mean to take notes?” (short, written-down words to help us remember something)

“Why are notes important?” (They help us remember important things.)

  • Confirm for students that notes are short, written-down words to help us remember important things.
  • Display the What Makes Day and Night notes sheet and tell students that today they will take notes on the text What Makes Day and Night.
  • Direct students to the prompts at top of the page and read them aloud:

“What makes day?”

“What makes night?”

  • Tell students they will use their own notes sheet to capture quick notes about the pattern of light and dark that we call day and night. Tell students that they will use these notes in the next lesson during the Science Talk protocol. Students can use pictures and words to record their notes.
  • Invite students to show a thumbs-up or touch their head if they are ready to begin writing and drawing their notes.
  • Distribute:
    • Prepared clipboards with the What Makes Day and Night notes sheet
    • Pencils
    • Crayons
    • Colored pencils
  • Invite students to begin working.
  • As students write and draw, circulate to offer support. Prompt students by referencing the What Makes Day and Night anchor chart and asking students to think about the close read-aloud sessions. Remind students that they can draw and write to record their notes.
  • Provide sentence frames as needed:
    • “Day happens because_____________.”
    • “Night happens because ___________.”
  • When 3 minutes remain, prompt students to complete the drawing or sentence they are working on and begin cleaning up by placing pencils and crayons back on the tables where they found them.
  • Refocus students whole group and invite a few students to share out their notes. 
  • For students who may need additional support recording their ideas in writing: Provide a partially filled-in or guided What Makes Day and Night notes sheet to help students know what to record. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Point out that take and notes are words we hear a lot together. Example: “Remember, when we take notes, we are not really taking anything. It means we are writing down words or pictures to remember something.” Prompt students to practice using the phrase take care of. Ask:

“When should you take notes?” (I should take notes when I want to remember something, and when I am listening to informational text.)

  • For ELLs: Invite students to use the sentence frame from the Mini Language Dive to support their work completing their What Makes Day and Night notes sheet. (Example: Day happens because the earth is moving toward the light.)

C. Shared Writing: Reflecting on Unit 2 Guiding Question (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to stretch their hands up to the sky as if they are touching the sun as they transition.
  • Once students are settled, direct their attention to the Unit 2 Guiding Question anchor chart and review it:
    • “What patterns can we observe in the sky?”
  • Tell students now they will have a chance to help add to the anchor chart through shared writing.
  • Use the following procedure to complete the shared writing:

1. Point to each column on the anchor chart and read the headings aloud.

2. Ask students to assist in filling out the first column of the anchor chart. Ask:

"What is the pattern?" (light and dark on earth, which we call day and night)

3. Add "light and dark (day and night)" to the chart.

4. Ask students to help fill out the second column of the anchor chart. Ask:

"What information should we record about this pattern?"

5. Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group.

6. As students share responses, use their ideas to complete the second column. Example: "The earth rotates each day. When the earth faces the sun we have day; when the earth turns away from the sun we have night."

7. Ask students to help fill out the third column of the anchor chart. Ask:

"What diagram or picture should we draw?" (picture of earth rotating and the sun shining on the earth with half dark and half light)

8. Add the diagram or picture to the chart.

  • If productive, cue students to think about their thinking:

“How does our discussion add to your understanding of how to answer the guiding question: What patterns can we observe in the sky? I’ll give you time to think and discuss with a partner.” (Responses will vary.)

  • Give students specific, positive feedback on their thoughtful work reflecting on the guiding question and remind them that they will continue to add to this anchor chart throughout the unit as they observe more patterns in the sky. (Example: “Noelle paraphrased Kamir’s idea that the earth should be shown half in light and half in dark when we draw the picture on the anchor chart. Thank you for working together to make sure the idea was clear!”)
  • As students help complete the anchor chart, provide support for students who may struggle with oral language and processing. Allow ample wait time as students prepare their thinking for sharing orally. (MME, MMAE)

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Writing: Sky Notebook (10 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct their attention to the posted learning targets and read the second one aloud:
  • “I can record my observations from images/videos of the sky in my Sky notebook.”
  • Remind students that in the previous lesson they received their Sky notebook where they will record their observations of the sun and moon. Today students will write independently in their Sky notebook to describe a new sun photograph using adjectives from the Adjectives anchor chart.
  • Display sun photograph 4.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What adjectives describe the sun?” (Answers will vary, but may include: yellow, round.)

  • Display page 3 of Sky notebook and read aloud the prompt at the top of the page:
    • “What does the sun look like?”
  • Students should answer the question using pictures and words to show their thinking. Remind students to use the Adjectives anchor chart to describe what the sun looks like. Remind students to use a complete sentence when answering the question.
  • Point out the Sky notebooks already at student workspaces.
  • Transition students to their workspaces and invite students to begin working on page 3.
  • Circulate and support students as necessary. Encourage them to use classroom resources (Word Walls, high-frequency word lists, and alphabet or letter sound combination charts). Refer to Sky notebook (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • When 1 minute remains, signal all students to stop working through the use of a designated sound. Model cleanup, keeping directions clear and brief. Collect the notebooks.
  • Before giving students a warning before the transition, support self-regulation and independence by providing a clear routine for what to do with unfinished work and using a visual timer. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Support students as they formulate sentences for the Describing the Sun and Moon recording form. Invite students to use the Adjectives Construction board (See Lesson 2) or the Adjectives Word Wall with the sentence frame: “The [sun/moon] looks like a(n) [adjective] [noun].” (Example: The sun looks like an orange ball. The sun looks bright and yellow.) Invite students to identify any new adjectives they might like to add to the board.

B. Shared Writing: Describing the Position of the Sun (5 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Remind them that in the past few lessons they have described sun and moon pictures using adjectives in their sky notebook. Today students will examine the new sun picture and help write about where they see the sun during shared writing.
  • Display sun photograph 4 again.
  • Then display the Describing the Position of the Sun recording form and using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group.

“Where is the sun located in the photograph?” (over the building)

  • Tell students that they will have the opportunity to describe the location of the sun in the picture through shared writing.
  • Use the following procedure to complete the shared writing:
  1. Point to the prompt at the top and read aloud: “Where do we see the sun?”
  2. Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“Which picture most closely resembles the sun photograph?”

3. As students share responses, use their ideas to answer the prompt. Begin by circling one of the pictures that most closely resembles the location of the sun in the photograph and then model writing a complete sentence to describe the location of the sun. (Example: “The sun is over the building.”)

  • Give students specific, positive feedback for their work helping to describe the position of the sun and tell them that they will write about the position of the moon during the next lesson.
  • During shared writing, provide options for visual perception by offering individual copies of the Describing the Position of the Sun recording form for students who may need support with using far-point display. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Prepare students to learn about directional words by suggesting non-examples and incorrect uses of prepositions. Prepare students for using the Science Talk protocol by inviting them to agree or disagree. (Example: The sun is under the building. Is that correct? Do you agree or disagree?)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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