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ELA G1:M2:U2:L4

Close Read-aloud, Session 3: What Makes Day and Night

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.1.2: Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • RI.1.4: Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.
  • RI.1.6: Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.
  • RI.1.7: Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.1.1a: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
  • L.1.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.1.5: With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • L.1.5c: Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
  • L.1.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Daily Learning Target

  • I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth. (RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, SL.1.1a)
  • I can record my observations from images/videos of the sky in my Sky notebook. (W.1.8, L.1.1f, L.1.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the Opening and Closing A, observe students as they begin to use adjectives to describe the sun, moon, and stars during shared writing and identify real-life connections with the adjectives. Record student progress on the Language Checklist. (L.1.1f, L.1.5c).
  • During Session 3 of the close read-aloud in Work Time A, use the Reading Informational Text Checklist as students answer the focus question, paying attention to how they distinguish information they’ve learned from illustrations and from the words in text. (RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, SL.1.1a)
  • During the Closing, circulate and observe students as they complete the Sky Notebook. Watch for students to observe and accurately use adjectives to describe the sun and moon. (W.1.8, L.1.1f, L.1.1j)

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Engaging the Learner: "What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars" Poem (10 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Close Read-aloud, Session 3: What Makes Day and Night, Pages 16–20 (20 minutes)

B. Engaging the Scientist: Introducing Integrity and Modeling How the Earth Moves (15 minutes)

C. Structured Discussion: Reflecting on Integrity (5 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Independent Writing: Sky Notebook (10 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In the Opening, students are introduced to the Adjectives anchor chart, which they will use to fill in missing adjectives on the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem (W.1.8, L.1.1f).
  • This lesson contains the third in a series of five close read-aloud sessions. Recall that close read-alouds are distinct from, and do not replace, more typical daily read-alouds. Daily read-alouds are essential so students experience the volume of reading needed to build their world knowledge and vocabulary. Refer to the K–5 Recommended Text List for suggestions of module-related texts to use in more typical read-alouds.
  • In Work Time B, students work in pairs on a science activity from the close read-aloud text What Makes Day and Night. Students use the illustrations and the words from the book to re-create the activity in the text. (RI.1.1, R.1.7, SL.1.1a, SL.1.6)
  • During Work Time B, students revisit the idea of habits of character from Unit 1: working to become an ethical person. In this lesson, students begin to focus on a new habit: integrity. Using the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart, students learn the definition of integrity and begin to consider how to apply this habit as they work in pairs during the science activity.
  • In the Closing, students receive and begin writing independently in their Sky notebook. This notebook is used throughout the unit to capture students’ descriptions of the appearance and location of the sun and moon in the sky.
  • As students write in their Sky notebook, they use adjectives and prepositions to describe the sun and moon (L.1.1f,i) and are asked to write in both simple and compound sentences (L.1.1j, L.1.6). Their work in the notebook partially addresses standards L.1.1j and L.1.6. These standards will be revisited during Unit 3.
  • Lessons 1–3 featured built-out instruction for Goal 3 Conversation Cues. Moving forward, this will appear only as reminders after select questions. Continue using Goal 1-3 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation. Refer to the Module 1 Appendix for additional information on Conversation Cues.

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • Continue to reinforce routines established in Lessons 2–3, including the poem routine and shared writing.
  • In this lesson, students learn a new habit of character around how to become an ethical person, specifically showing integrity. Students were introduced to this chart and to the first habit of character for this chart in Unit 1.
  • The Sky notebook used in the Closing builds on the work that students did during shared writing in Lessons 2–3 using the recording forms.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • The concept of “integrity” may feel abstract; students may find it difficult to reflect on how they show integrity. As students collaborate while following a set protocol, continue to name specific behaviors that show integrity and give concrete examples that help students articulate their own progress toward this habit of character. Examples: “I see that everyone is listening to the question. That means you are working with integrity!” and “I can hear lots of good conversations going on. Thank you for working with integrity.”
  • Some students may need additional support to transition to writing more independently. Remind students to use the tools around the room such as the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall, the Adjectives anchor chart, and the High-Frequency Word Wall.
  • Some students may need additional support with writing a complete sentence when answering a prompt. Consider reviewing with students how to use the words from the question as a cue to formulate the answer using a complete sentence. (Example question: “What does the sun look like?” Answer: The sun looks _______.)

Down the road:

  • Throughout Unit 2, students will continue to reflect on their progress toward showing integrity.
  • In this lesson, students are introduced to the Sky notebook, which contains pages that students will use across multiple lessons in the unit. The entire notebook is compiled in the supporting materials of this lesson. Based on the needs of your students, consider separating the pages in advance to distribute only as each page is used.
  • In Lesson 5, students will continue building their understanding of the observable pattern of light (day) and dark (night) as they transfer information from the What Makes Day and Night anchor chart into their own individual notes, which they will use to take part in their first Science Talk in Lesson 6.

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall card for the word daylight introduced during the close read-aloud. Write or type the word on a card and create or find a visual to accompany each word.
  • Adjectives anchor chart using circled/highlighted adjectives from the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem. Preview the Opening to envision how this material is used.
    • To display sun photograph 3 and moon photograph 3 in color if possible.
  • Preview:
    • Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 3; for teacher reference).
    • Pages 1 and 2 of the Sky notebook.
  • Pre-distribute materials for the Closing at student workspaces to ensure a smooth transition.
  • Gather flashlights for the interactive experience in Work Time B.
  • Strategically pair students for the interactive experience in Work Time B.
  • Review the Pinky Partners and Think-Pair-Share protocols. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Post: Learning targets, “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem, and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Opening A: Create the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem version 2 in an online format—for example, a Google Doc—to display and for families to access at home.
  • Work Time B: Video record students as they complete the close read-aloud follow-up activity to review with students in later lessons as a reminder of what happened. Most devices (cellphones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video recording apps or software.
  • Closing A: Students complete the Sky notebook using a word-processing tool—for example, a Google Doc.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.A.1, 1.I.B.5, 1.I.B.6, 1.I.C.10, 1.I.C.12, and 1.II.B.4

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs with opportunities to read closely and interpret academic text. Students will apply and deepen their understanding of academic content using multiple modalities, including a hands-on experiment.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to make connections between the phenomena described in What Makes Day and Night and the experiment performed in Work Time B. Make this connection as explicit as possible. Consider incorporating a globe or a beach ball to make the connection even more apparent.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • During Work Time C, encourage students to use Conversation Cues with other students to extend and deepen conversations, think with others, and enhance language development.

For heavier support:

  • During Closing and Assessment, consider working closely with a small group of students who are not ready to complete their Sky notebooks independently. Complete the activity as a shared or interactive writing experience.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Throughout this lesson, embed support for unfamiliar vocabulary by providing explanation and visual examples. This will help students make connections and support comprehension. For example, prepare index cards with unfamiliar vocabulary and provide them to students before the close read-aloud. When introducing and reading each word, invite students to sketch a quick drawing on the card to support construction of meaning.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): As students begin independent writing, vary methods for fine motor responses by offering options for drawing utensils (e.g., thick markers or colored pencils) and writing tools (e.g., fine-tipped markers, pencil grips, slant boards). Some students may forget their sentence ideas once they begin directing their efforts toward writing. Support strategy development by modeling how to physically touch the words/spaces on the sentence frame and draw lines for additional words you intend to write. This will help students recall their original ideas throughout the writing process.
  • Multiple Means of Expression (MME): Build a supportive environment to increase sustained engagement for all learners. During the Closing activity, congratulate class members on their writing for the day. Foster a sense of community and provide options for physical action by inviting students to give themselves a special applause

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

New:

  • rotate (L)
  • daylight (T)

Review:

  • sunrise, sunset, night, noontime, light, dark (L)

Materials

  • Adjectives anchor chart (new; teacher-created; see supporting materials)
  • “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem version 2 (example, for teacher reference)
  • Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 3; for teacher reference)
    • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall cards (new; teacher-created; one)
    • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 1; added to during Work Time A)
    • What Makes Day and Night (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
    • Globe (one; for teacher modeling)
    • What Makes Day and Night anchor chart (begun in Lesson 3; see Close Read-aloud Guide)
    • Reading Informational Text Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Unit 1, Lesson 4; added to during Work Time C)
  • Flashlight (one for teacher modeling and one per pair)
  • Pinky Partners Protocol anchor chart (begun in Module 1)
  • Speaking and Listening Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Think-Pair-Share Protocol anchor chart (begin in Module 1)
  • Sun photograph 3 (one to display)
  • Moon photograph 3 (one to display)
  • Sky notebook (pages 1–2; one per student)
  • Sky notebook (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Pencils (one per student)
  • Colored pencils (class set; variety of colors per student)
  • Crayons (class set; variety of colors per student)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Engaging the Learner: “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” Poem (10 minutes)

  • Invite students to the whole group area.
  • Remind them that in previous lessons they listened to the poem being read aloud and listened for adjectives that describe the sun, moon, and stars.
  • Direct students’ attention to the posted Adjectives anchor chart. Say: “We did great work finding all the adjectives in the poem. I pulled them out and put them onto a chart.”
  • Point to each adjective while reading aloud.
  • Display the “What We See: The Sun, Moon, and Stars” poem version 2. Ask:

“What do you notice that’s different about the poem today?” (There are empty spaces and words missing.)

“What words are missing in the empty spaces?” (adjectives)

  • Tell students that today they will follow along while the poem is read aloud. They should use adjectives from the Adjectives anchor chart to fill in the correct missing adjectives.
  • Use the following procedure to complete filling in the missing adjectives in the poem:

1. Invite students to follow along as you read the poem aloud and track the print: "The sun looks ______________."

2. Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

"Which adjective fits in the missing space?" (Responses will vary.)

3. As students share responses, use their ideas to fill in the missing adjective. (Example: "The sun looks large and yellow.")

4. Invite students to join you as you read the corrected line of the poem.

5. When all corrections have been made, read the corrected poem together with students.

  • Direct students' attention back to the Adjectives anchor chart. Ask:

"Can we add any more adjectives to describe the sun, moon, and stars to this chart?" (Responses will vary.)

"What is something at home or at school that we could describe using this adjective?" (Responses will vary)

  •  As students share, add any remaining adjectives to the chart.
  • Remind students to use the adjective from the Adjectives anchor chart when they write in their Sky notebooks later in today's lesson
  • To support students’ expressive skills, offer index cards (before reading the poem) preprinted with adjectives from the poem to select as students select missing words. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Challenge students by displaying the poem without adjectives, but without the blank spaces to indicate where they belong. Invite students to determine where the adjectives should be placed within the poem. Guide them to conclude that adjectives come before people places and things in sentences, not after. (Example: “This says ‘from moon to moon.’ Where should I put an adjective? ‘From moon crescent’? That doesn’t sound right. Right! ‘From crescent moon’!”

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Close Read-aloud, Session 3: What Makes Day and Night, Pages 16–20 (20 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Direct their attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:
    • “I can distinguish what I learn from the illustrations and what I learn from the text in the book What Makes Day and Night to describe the pattern of light and dark on earth.”
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What do we notice about how the illustrations and the text in the book help us to understand the pattern of light and dark on earth”? (The pictures and the words match, and they show part of earth in light and some in dark.)

  • Invite one or two students to share out.
  • Tell students that today they will continue to investigate the pattern of light and dark on earth and see how that affects us on earth.
  • Review the focus question by reading it aloud:
    • “What makes day and night on earth?”
  • Invite students to take out their imaginary bows and to take aim at the target.
  • Guide students through the close read-aloud of What Makes Day and Night using the Close Read-aloud Guide: What Makes Day and Night (Session 3; for teacher reference). Consider using the Reading Informational Text Checklist (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • During Session 3, refer to the guide for the use of What Makes Day and Night, the What Makes Day and Night anchor chart, the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall cards, the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall, and the globe.
  • Refocus whole group
  • Before reading, provide white boards and dry-erase markers as an option for students to record (in drawing or writing) their ideas. This will also help scaffold active listening for key details. (MMR, MMAE)

B. Engaging the Scientist: Introducing Integrity and Modeling How the Earth Moves (15 minutes)

  • Share with students that now that they have learned how the earth moves from daylight to darkness, they are going to explore this occurrence more closely through an experiment.
  • Briefly introduce the definition of rotate (turn in a circle around a center point).
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“During the day, is the earth facing toward the sun, or away from the sun? How do you know?” (The earth is facing the sun during daytime. I know because the sun gives us light and warmth.)

  • Tell students that today they will work in groups to see how daylight turns into darkness as the earth rotates throughout the day.
  • Remind students that in the previous unit they learned one habit of character about how we treat others. Direct students’ attention to the posted Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart and read it aloud:
    • “Respect: I treat myself, others, and the environment with care.”
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“How did you show respect during the Role-Play protocol in the last unit?” (Responses will vary, but may include: I made sure to take turns with my partner so we could be different characters.)

  • Invite one or two students to share with the whole group.
  • Tell students that today they will learn a new habit of character connected to how we treat each other.
  • Direct students’ attention to the first row that reads integrity. Tell students the next habit of character they will learn about is integrity.
  • Point to the column that reads, “What does it mean?” and read the definition of integrity:
    • “I do the right thing even when it’s hard.”
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“Have you experienced a time when you had to do the right thing even when it’s hard? What was the scenario?” (Yes, I had to choose not to play around and distract my friend during a group lesson.)

“Why is it important to do right thing when following directions in a group activity?” (It keeps us on task.)

  • Tell students that they can show integrity by working with their group on today’s science activity. They should focus on following directions and avoiding distractions even if it seems hard.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“How will you show integrity during the science activity?” (I will follow directions and keep on task.)

  • Display pages 22–23 of What Makes Day and Night. Say:

“Today you will work in pairs to re-create the illustrations on pages 22 and 23.”

  • Move students into pre-determined pairs and point to the first illustration on page 22. Read the text beneath the illustration aloud.
    • “Stand so that your left side is toward the lamp. Hold your arms out all the way. Your left hand points toward the lamp. This is sunrise.”
  • Distribute flashlights. Tell students that one partner will model being the earth and the other partner will model being the sun by holding a flashlight.

1. Invite students to re-create the first illustration on page 22.

2. Point to the second illustration on page 22. Read the text beneath the illustration aloud.

3. Invite students to re-create the second illustration on page 22.

4. Point to the first illustration on page 23. Read the text beneath the illustration aloud.

5. Invite students to re-create the first illustration on page 23.

6. Point to the second illustration on page 23. Read the text beneath the illustration aloud.

7. Invite students to re-create the second illustration on page 23.

  • Tell students that they will now talk with a partner using the Pinky Partners protocol to discuss what they noticed about how the earth moves from daylight to darkness. Remind students that they used this protocol in Module 1 and review as necessary, using the Pinky Partners Protocol anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Guide students through the protocol.
  • As students talk, circulate and listen in. Take note of the ideas they are sharing and target a few students to share out with the whole group. Document progress toward SL.1.1 using the Speaking and Listening Checklist.
  • Remind students to make a bridge with their arms after both partners have shared.
  • Gather students back together and invite a few students to share out.
  • Tell students that they will use this activity again in the next lesson.
  • If productive, cue students to think about their thinking:

“How does our experiment add to your understanding of what makes day and night? I’ll give you time to think and discuss with a partner.” (Responses will vary.)

  • To activate background knowledge, provide one or two examples of what integrity looks and sounds like. (Example: “When my son shows integrity, I see him studying for a test while his friends are outside playing basketball. What do you see?”) (MMR)
  • For ELLs: The concept of integrity may seem abstract for some students. Make it more concrete by telling a brief story about how you show integrity in your life. Provide dialogue that illustrates what showing integrity might sound like. (Examples: “Once, when I was a kid, I was so tired that I wanted to stay in bed. I thought about telling a lie that I had a tummy ache so that I could stay home from school. But I decided to tell the truth instead, even though it was hard. I said, ‘I’m going to do the right thing!’”)

C. Structured Discussion: Reflecting on Integrity (5 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart. Point to the column that reads, “What does it mean?” and read the definition of integrity:
    • “I do the right thing even when it’s hard.”
  • Tell students they are going to use the Think-Pair-Share protocol to discuss how they showed integrity during the science activity. Remind them that they used this protocol in Lesson 3, and review as necessary using the Think-Pair-Share Protocol anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of the protocol.)
  • Invite students to Think-Pair-Share with an elbow partner:

“How did you show integrity during the science activity?” (Responses will vary.)

  • Offer the following sentence stems as necessary:
    • “I showed integrity by _________.”
    • “This helped me and my partner because _________.”
  • As students talk, circulate and listen in. Take note of the ideas they are sharing and target a few students to share out with the whole group. Document progress toward SL.1.1 using the Speaking and Listening Checklist.
  • Remind students to make a bridge with their arms after both partners have shared.
  • Gather students back together and invite a few students to share out.
  • Remind students that they will keep working on using this habit of character throughout the unit when working with partners and small groups.
  • During the Think-Pair-Share, scaffold self-regulatory skills by helping students anticipate and manage frustration. Model what to do if a partner has an idea they do not agree with. (Example: “My partner said she showed integrity by holding the flashlight. If I don’t agree with that, I can remember to ask her to say more about how that shows integrity. This will help me better understand her thinking.”) (MME)
  • For ELLs: Invite students, whole class, to generate ideas about how they showed integrity. Record and display student thinking. Invite students to draw from these ideas as they think about and discuss ways they showed integrity with their partners (examples: listening carefully, using the flashlight properly, following instructions).

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Independent Writing: Sky notebook (10 minutes)

  • Refocus students whole group.
  • Remind them that earlier in the lesson they were introduced to the Adjectives anchor chart. Now they will look at a new set of sun and moon pictures and write about these pictures using adjectives from the anchor chart in their very own Sky notebook.
  • Display sun photograph 3 and moon photograph 3.
  • Invite students to turn and talk to an elbow partner:

“What adjectives describe the sun?” (Answers will vary, but may include: yellow, bright, fiery, shiny.)

“What adjectives describe the moon?” (Answers will vary, but may include: white, crescent.)

  • Display the Sky notebook. Tell students that for the remainder of this unit they will capture their observations of the sun and moon in this notebook.
  • Direct students to the top of page 1 and read the question aloud: “What does the sun look like?”
  • Direct students to the top of page 2 and read the question aloud: “What does the moon look like?”
  • Tell students that today they will answer these two questions using pictures and words to show their thinking. Remind students to use the Adjectives anchor chart to describe what the sun and the moon look like. Remind students to use a complete sentence when answering the question.
  • Invite students to show a thumbs-up or touch their head if they are ready to begin writing and drawing about the sun and moon.
  • Point out the Sky notebooks, pencils, colored pencils, and crayons already at student workspaces.
  • Transition students to their workspaces and invite them to begin working on page 1.
  • After 3 minutes of work time, recommend that students begin working on page 2.
  • Circulate and support students as necessary. Encourage them to use classroom resources (Word Walls, high-frequency word lists, and alphabet or letter sound combination charts). Refer to Sky notebook (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • After 3 minutes, signal all students to stop working through the use of a designated sound. Model cleanup, keeping directions clear and brief. Collect the notebooks and tell students they will continue to write in their Sky notebook in upcoming lessons.
  • Offer students specific, positive feedback on their use of adjectives. (Example: “I noticed you were thinking about which adjectives best describe today’s moon picture.”)
  • Minimize distractions during independent writing by providing tools such as sound-canceling headphones or individual dividers. (MME)
  • For ELLs: Provide students with a sentence frame to support their writing in their Sky notebooks. (Example: The sun looks _____ and _____.”)
  • For ELLs: Briefly discuss the photograph to ensure that all students are prepared to write about the different objects in it. Label relevant objects in the photograph to support students as they write. (Example: “Does anyone know what this is? That’s right, it is a streetlight. Ingrid, can you label the streetlight? And these are towers. I’ll label them.”)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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