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ELA G1:M2:U1:L12

Focused Read Aloud and Retelling, Session 1: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RL.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RL.1.2: Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.
  • RL.1.3: Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
  • RL.1.7: Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.
  • W.1.8: With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • SL.1.1: Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • SL.1.2: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • L.1.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • L.1.1e: Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
  • L.1.6: Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Daily Learning Target

  • I can answer questions about key details from Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky.(RL.1.1, RL.1.2, RL.1.7, SL.1.1, SL.1.2)
  • I can describe the characters, setting, and major events from Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky.(RL.1.3, W.1.8, L.1.6)

Ongoing Assessment

  • During the focused read-aloud in Work Time A, use the Reading Literature Checklist to track students’ progress toward RL.1.1, RL.1.2, RL.1.3, and RL.1.7 (see Assessment Overview and Resources).
  • During Work Time B, circulate and listen for students to use words and phrases acquired through the read-aloud during the Role-Play protocol. Note how students are interacting with one another using the Speaking and Listening Checklist (see Assessment Overview and Resources).

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Song and Movement and Language: "Sun, Moon, and Stars" Version 2 Song (5 minutes)

2. Work Time

A. Focused Read-aloud, Session 1: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky (20 minutes)

B. Role-Play: Character and Setting, Pages 7–17 (15 minutes)

C. Independent Writing: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky Response Sheet, Parts I and II (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Reflecting on Learning (5 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • This lesson follows the pattern of Lesson 8. It is the first of two lessons in which students engage in a focused read-aloud of Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky. Students use the text and illustrations to ask and answer questions about the characters, setting, events, and central message/lesson in the story.
  • In Work Time A, students are invited to place the Story Element board icons onto the Story Elements board. This gradual release of responsibility puts the importance of tracking story elements onto the students and off of the teacher.
  • This lesson introduces the use of puppets during the Role-Play protocol, which adds the element of play and serves as a vehicle to introduce the idea of respecting the environment through hands-on practice. Students also work in triads for the first time during the protocol. Both of these changes help to keep the protocol fresh, interesting, and engaging for students. Navigating this different kind of grouping may take more time, so anticipate reallocating some instructional time if necessary.
  • If possible, provide students access to the text, Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky by Elphinstone Dayrell, during the K-2 Labs and K-2 Reading Foundations Skills Block.

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • During the Opening, students review the “Sun, Moon, and Stars” Version 2 song.
  • In Lessons 10–11, students created a Story Elements board for Sun and Moon. In this lesson, they begin a new board for Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky.
  • Students continue to use the Role-Play protocol, with the introduction of triad grouping and puppets.
  • Students continue the routine of responding to the focused read-aloud in writing using the Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky response sheet.
  • Continue to use Goal 1 and 2 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • The introduction of puppets in Work Time B may be exciting for students. Be sure to set ground rules and parameters for how students should use these role-playing tools—for example, modeling how and where to put puppets away in the classroom.
  • Some students may need additional support with their oral language during the role-play. Look for opportunities to support students’ oral language as they practice role-playing by providing sentence stems or mimed actions.
  • Support students in their transfer of oral rehearsal into writing before and during Work Time C by referring back to the Story Elements board.

Down the road:

  • In the next lesson, students will continue using the puppets to enhance the Role-Play protocol. Continue to uphold high expectations for using the puppets in the next lesson.
  • Throughout this unit, students repeatedly return to texts to ask and answer questions about the characters, setting, events, and central message of the story. In Lessons 14–15, students will complete the Unit 1 Assessment by completing all parts of the response sheet for Kitten’s First Full Moon. 

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Story Elements board by clearing the icons used to track the character(s), setting, and events from Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky.
    • Parts I and II of the Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky response sheet on clipboards for Work Time C.
  • Strategically group students into triads for the Role-Play protocol in Work Time B. Consider pairing students with varying levels of language proficiency. The students with greater language proficiency can serve as models in their partnership, initiating discussion and providing implicit sentence frames.
  • Review the Role-Play and Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocols. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of this protocol.)
  • Post: Learning targets, “Sun, Moon, and Stars” Version 2 song, and applicable anchor charts (see materials list).

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive white board or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Video record students as they sing the complete “Moon” song to watch with students to evaluate strengths and areas for improvement. Post it on a teacher webpage or on a portfolio app such as Seesaw for students to watch at home with families. Most devices (cellphones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video and audio recording apps or software.

Supporting English Language Learners

Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.A.1, 1.I.A.3, 1.I.B.6, 1.I.C.10, and 1.I.C.12

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by providing opportunities to deepen comprehension and practice oral language by acting out key events from the text Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky.
  • ELLs may find it challenging to comprehend parts of the text because it contains some challenging academic language, and the class will not examine it as closely as other read-alouds. Stop often to check for comprehension. Encourage students to look closely at the illustrations and provide additional sketches to help determine the meaning of the text. Consider guiding students through the Mini Language Dive during Work Time A.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • During Work Time B, challenge students to use language from the unit’s Language Dives and vocabulary from the text as they act out events from Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky. (Example: “I overflowed the top of the roof. I was forced to go up into the sky.”)
  • During Work Time C, as students complete the response sheet, encourage those who have received heavy support with the activity to work more independently.
  • During the Mini Language Dive, challenge students to generate questions about the sentence before asking the prepared questions. Example: “What questions can we ask about this sentence? Let’s see if we can answer them together.”

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time B, empower students to ask their partners for help if they are not sure what to say as they act out events from Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky. Encourage them to say, “Line,” if they feel stuck. Their partners can then suggest something for them to say.

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): In this lesson, students are introduced to puppets for use during the Role-Play protocol. Some students will need additional support in recognizing how to care for the puppets and use them purposefully. Provide alternatives to auditory information by inviting students to demonstrate what it looks like and sounds like to care for the puppets.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): In this lesson, individual students are asked to share ideas about Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky with a partner. Some students may need additional support with discussing story elements. As students talk with a partner, provide options for expression and communication by using prompts and sentence frames.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): During the Closing activity, give students specific, positive feedback on how hard they have worked to become effective learners. Foster a sense of community and provide options for physical action by inviting students to give themselves a special applause

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T); Vocabulary Used in Writing (W)

Review:

  • character, setting, moon, sun (L)
  • sky, earth (T),

Materials

  • “Sun, Moon, and Stars” Version 2 song (from Lesson 5; one to display)
  • Story Elements board (blank; added to during Work Time A)
  • Reading Literature Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky (one to display; for teacher read-aloud)
  • Story Elements Board Icons: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky (two; added to Story Elements board during Work Time A)
  • Story Elements Board: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky (answers, for teacher reference)
  • Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall (begun in Lesson 1)
  • Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart (begun in Lesson 4; added to during Work Time B; see supporting materials)
  • Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky puppets (one per student)
  • Role-Play Protocol anchor chart (begun Lesson 4)
  • Speaking and Listening Checklist (for teacher reference; see Assessment Overview and Resources)
  • Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky response sheet(one per student and one to display)
  • Pencils (one per student)
  • Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face Protocol anchor chart (begun in Module 1)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Song and Movement and Language: “Sun, Moon, and Stars” Version 2 Song (5 minutes)

  • Direct students to sit in a circle around the whole group meeting area.
  • Display the “Sun, Moon, and Stars” song and invite students to sing and move along with you as you sing the complete song in the present tense.
  • If time permits, repeat the song in the past tense and in the future tense.
  • Provide students’ with specific, positive feedback on their ability to engage with the song and movement.
  • Provide differentiated mentors by seating students who are less comfortable singing next to students who may be more comfortable. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Before singing the “Sun Moon and Stars” song using the past and present tenses, ask students to identify the words must change to correctly sing it in the past and future tenses, respectively. If time allows, use the will cards created for Lesson 9 to support students with the correct word order for the future tense.

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Focused Read-aloud, Session 1: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky (20 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read them aloud:
    • “I can answer questions about key details from Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky.”
    • “I can describe the characters, setting, and major events from Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky.”
  • Remind students that they will work toward meeting these learning targets during the focused read-aloud today.
  • Direct students’ attention to the Story Elements board and tell them that today, volunteers will come up and help add icons to the board. As students engage with the text, use the Reading Literature Checklist to track their progress.
  • Display Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky and remind students that, as in previous lessons, they will use a signal to show when they see or hear a character introduced in the story. Demonstrate the signal (thumbs-up, pat your head, touch your toes, etc.).
  • Draw students’ attention back to the book and read aloud pages 1–12 slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption, looking for students to use the designated signal.
  • Pause at page 13 and ask:

“Who are the characters?” (Sun, Moon, and Water)

  • Invite a student volunteer to come up and place the Story Elements Board Icons: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky for Sun, Moon, Water on the Story Elements board. Refer to Story Elements Board: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky (answers, for teacher reference) as necessary.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“As you look carefully at the illustration, what details help you understand the setting?” (huts or houses made of grass, a pathway, people in costumes, etc.)

  • Cold call a few students to share details of what they see.
  • Ask:

“Based on these details, when and where is this story taking place?” (a long time ago in a village or small town on earth)

  • Cold call a few students to share out.
  • Invite a student volunteer to come up and place the Story Elements board icon for village on the board.
  • Direct students’ attention to the Sun, Moon, and Stars Word Wall.
  • Briefly review the words: sun, moon, sky, and earth.
  • Draw students’ attention back to the text and read aloud pages 14–19.
  • Ask:

“What has Water done so far in the story? How is that affecting Sun and Moon?” (Water brought friends to the house and they are filling up the house, so Sun and Moon have no space.)

  • Draw students’ attention back to the text and read the remainder of it. Invite students to move their bodies to pretend to be the Moon or the Sun going up in the sky as the read-aloud comes to a close.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“At the end of the story, why did Sun and Moon go up into the sky?” (because their house was overflowed with water and there was no room for them)

  • Cold call a few students to share out.
  • If productive, cue students to listen carefully and seek to understand:

“Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?” (Responses will vary.)

 

  • When circulating and listening in to students’ conversations, scaffold partner conversations as needed. Some students may benefit from explicit prompting or a sentence frame. (Example: “Sun and Moon went into the sky because __________.”) (MMAE)
  • As students share out ideas about why Sun and Moon went up into the sky, offer alternatives to auditory information by writing students’ ideas on chart paper or a white board. Save their ideas to refer to in future lessons. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Mini Language Dive. In this lesson and Lesson 13, ask students about the meaning of the chunks from a key sentence from the Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky: “the water very soon overflowed / the top of the roof, /and the sun and moon were forced / to go up into the sky.” Write and display student responses next to the chunks. Point to pictures in the text on display, or quickly sketch and display the compound with water up to the roof and the sun and moon perched on top. Examples:
    • Read the chunks aloud in sequence. Ask:
      • “What is the meaning of this part of the sentence?” (Responses will vary.)
    • Place your finger on the chunk: the water very soon overflowed. Ask:
      • “What characters is this chunk about?” (water)
    • Point to the prefix over- and ask:
      • “If flowed means the water moved quickly into the compound, what do you think overflowed means?” (moved into and above the compound). Consider demonstrating overflowed with a cup of water under a faucet or too many pencils in a box.
      • “So, what did the water do?” (The water overflowed.)
    • Place your finger on the chunk: the top of the roof. Focus student attention on the sketch. Ask:
      • “Who can point to where the water overflowed?” (Look for students to come up to the display and point to the top of the roof and say the top of the roof. Next to the first sketch, sketch the water overflowing to the top of the roof.)
    • Place your finger on the chunk: and the sun and moon were forced to go. Focus students’ attention on the sketch. Ask:
      • “What characters is this chunk about?” (the sun and the moon)
      • “What did the sun and the moon do?” (They were forced to go.)
    • Place your finger on the chunk: up into the sky. Focus students’ attention on the sketch. Ask:
      • “So, the water overflowed the top of the roof. Who can point to where the sun and moon were forced to go?” (Look for students to come up to the display and point to the sky above the roof and say up into the sky. Next to the second sketch, sketch the sun and moon in the sky above the roof.)
      • “Who forced the sun and moon up into the sky?” (the water)
      • “We’ll talk about these chunks again in Lesson 13. Before then, think about how these chunks help us understand the story.”

B. Role-Play: Character and Setting, Pages 7–17 (15 minutes)

  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and reread the second one aloud:
    • “I can describe the characters, setting, and major events from Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky.”
  • Direct students’ attention to the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart and quickly review it.
  • Tell students that we know how to show, to each other, the habit of respect from the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart, but we can also show respect for our classroom environment by taking care of the things and space of our classroom.
  • With excitement, share with students that today they will use a new retelling tool during the Role-Play protocol: puppets!
  • Display each Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky puppet and invite students to call out the names of the characters in a choral response.
  • Invite students to turn and talk with an elbow partner:

“How can we work to become effective learners and care for the puppets?” (use them carefully so they do not break, put them away correctly, share nicely with each other, etc.)

  • Move students into pre-determined triads and guide them through the Role-Play protocol with pages 7–17 of Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky. Review using the Role-Play Protocol anchor chart as necessary (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of this protocol) and track their progress with the Speaking and Listening Checklist for SL.1.1 and SL.1.2.
  • Give students specific, positive feedback on their ability to show care for their environment. (Example: “Angela and Eliot showed how to be effective learners with respect to their environment when Eliot dropped his sun puppet and Angela very carefully picked it up and handed it to him.”)
  • As students share ideas for how to care for the puppets, provide alternatives to auditory information by inviting students to demonstrate what it looks like and sounds like to care for the puppets. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: To provide heavier support, consider inviting more advanced proficiency students to create a word bank that students can use to talk about showing respect for the puppets. (Examples: carefully/put away/share)

For ELLs: Create groups with varying levels of language proficiency. The students with greater language proficiency can serve as models in the group, initiating discussions and providing implicit sentence frames. If possible, consider grouping students who speak the same home language together to help one another interpret and comprehend the role-play in their home languages.

C. Independent Writing: Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky Response Sheet, Parts I and II (15 minutes)

  • Tell students that now they are going to write what they know about the characters and setting of Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky, just as they did in Lessons 8 and 10.
  • Distribute prepared clipboards with Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky response sheets and pencils and follow the same routine established in Lessons 8 and 10 to complete Parts I and II.
  • Circulate to support students as they write. Encourage them to use classroom resources (Story Elements board, Word Walls, high-frequency word lists, and alphabet or letter sound combination charts). If students need additional support generating ideas, invite them to work in a small group with support and refer to the Story Elements board from Work Time A.
  • When 2 minutes remain, provide students with a time reminder and encourage them to finish up Part II. Signal all students to stop working through the use of a designated sound.
  • Collect students’ response sheets.
  • When giving the 2-minute reminders for each section of writing, provide alternatives to auditory information and support self-regulation by using a visual timer. (MMR, MME)
  • For ELLs: Students who need heavier support may have trouble writing their thoughts. Help them identify key elements of the response sheet and allow them to repeat words and phrases. For example, if a student wrote or pointed to generous in Part 2, point to it and say: “The sun was generous because he was building a huge compound in which to entertain his friend.” Encourage the student to repeat the sentence and then write each word as he or she repeats it again.

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Reflecting on Learning (5 minutes)

  • Invite students to move back into a circle around the whole group meeting area.
  • Focus students on the Working to Become Ethical People anchor chart. Tell them they are going to use the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face protocol to share one way they showed progress toward this habit of character during the lesson. Remind students that they used this protocol in the past and review as necessary, using the Back-to-Back and Face-to-Face Protocol anchor chart. (Refer to the Classroom Protocols document for the full version of this protocol.)
  • Guide students through the protocol using the following question:

“How did you work to become and effective learner for yourself, your classmates, and the classroom environment during today’s lesson?” (Responses will vary.)

  • Invite students to return to their seats and engage in a whole group discussion regarding their responses as time permits.
  • If productive, cue students to listen carefully and seek to understand:

“Who can tell us what your classmate said in your own words?” (Responses will vary.)

  • Give students specific, positive feedback on making progress toward becoming effective learners. (Example: “Nora, I heard you say you showed Working to Become Effective Learners for others when you moved over to make room for Shawn in the circle.”)
  • Tell students that in the next lesson, they will finish their focused read-aloud of Why the Sun and the Moon Live in the Sky in preparation for the unit assessment.
  • When discussing working toward becoming effective learners with the whole class, foster a sense of community and provide options for physical action by inviting students to join you in a special applause (e.g., silent cheer, firecracker, hip-hip hooray). (MMAE, MME)
  • For ELLs: Invite students who need lighter support to suggest sentence frames to expand ways for students to express themselves. (Examples: “I heard others_____, so I saw respect today.” “I saw others _____, so I saw respect today.” “I saw _____ taking care of others by _____.”)

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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