Speaking and Listening: Why Do We Need Tools? | EL Education CurriculumTEST2

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ELA G1:M1:U1:L6

Speaking and Listening: Why Do We Need Tools?

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These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:

  • RI.1.1: Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • RI.1.7: Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
  • L.1.5: With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  • L.1.5a: Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  • L.1.5b: Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
  • SL.1.1: Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

Daily Learning Target

  • I can sort tools into categories. (L.1.5a, L.1.5b)
  • I can ask and answer questions about key ideas using the photographs and text in a book. (RI.1.1, RI.1.7, SL.1.1)

Ongoing Assessment

  • Use the Unit 1 Assessment Speaking and Listening Checklist in the Assessment Overview and Resources Packet to track students’ progress toward SL.1.1a.
  • During Work Time A, students ask each other questions while sorting pictures. Prompt students still struggling to form a question to use the question words on the Tools and Work Word Wall displayed in the room. 

Agenda

AgendaTeaching Notes

1. Opening

A. Working with Vocabulary: Tools and Work Word Wall (10 minutes) 

2. Work Time

A. Speaking and Listening: Sorting Photographs (15 minutes)

B. Model Writing: What Job Does the Tool Help to Do? (5 minutes)

C. Independent Writing: What Job Does the Tool Help to Do? (15 minutes)

3. Closing and Assessment

A. Structured Discussion: Why Do We Need Tools? (10 minutes)

B. Reflecting on Learning (5 minutes)

Purpose of lesson and alignment to standards:

  • In this lesson, students use photographs from the book Tools, introduced in Lesson 5, to practice asking questions and sorting the photographs into categories.
  • During this lesson, students are again encouraged to use question words (who, what, when, where, why, and how). Note students’ skill level with asking questions. Begin to assess students as they ask and answer questions, using the Unit 1 Assessment Speaking and Listening Checklist in the Assessment Overview and Resources Packet.
  • Lessons 3–5 featured built-out instruction for Goal 1 Conversation Cues. Moving forward, this will appear only as reminders after select questions. Continue using Goal 1 Conversation Cues to promote productive and equitable conversation. Refer to the Lesson 3 Teaching Notes and see the Tools page for additional information on Conversation Cues. 

How this lesson builds on previous work:

  • During previous lessons, students asked and answered questions about the tools presented in each of the challenges. In this lesson, they further refine these skills of asking and answering questions by rereading an excerpt from Tools and some of the captions in the index, and by engaging in multiple discussions.

Areas in which students may need additional support:

  • In Work Time A, students may need additional support with organization when asked to sort pictures with a partner. Support students by giving two different colored papers to place their pictures on, or by suggesting that each partner hold his or her own category.
  • In Work Time C, students discuss their answers and then write independently. Support students with prompts and resources around the room in order to write with inventive spelling. If a sentence requires dictation, prompt the student to read it aloud afterward. 

Down the road:

  • This lesson is the first of three lessons with opportunities to collect data on students’ progress toward SL.1.1a.
  • In Lesson 7, students will engage in a similar lesson structure as they gradually increase their independence. 

In Advance

  • Prepare:
    • Tools and Work Word Wall cards. Write each word on an index card and, where appropriate, draw a corresponding image to support students’ understanding of the word.
    • Sorting Protocol anchor chart (see supporting materials)
    • Types of Tools, Picture Set 1 (copy and cut out the pictures so that there are enough sets for every pair in the class)
  • Set up a document camera to display the Cutting/Farming Tools model response sheet.
  • Distribute pencils and Cutting/Farming Tools response sheets at student tables. Doing this in advance helps ensure a smooth transition during Work Time C.
  • Review the Sit, Kneel, Stand protocol.
  • Post: Learning targets, "Learning Target" poem, Sorting Protocol anchor chart, Classroom Discussion Norms anchor chart.

Tech and Multimedia

Consider using an interactive whiteboard or document camera to display lesson materials.

  • Opening A: Mission Letter #2 could be an email.
  • Work Time A: Create the Sorting Protocol anchor chart in an online format, for example a Google Doc, to display.
  • Work Time A and C: Record students as they work in pairs to listen to with students later to discuss strengths and what they could improve on, or to use as models for the group. Most devices (cell phones, tablets, laptop computers) come equipped with free video and audio recording apps or software.
  • Work Time C: Students complete the Cutting/Farming Tools Sample Student Response Sheet using a word processing tool, for example a Google Doc. 

Supporting English Language Learners

  • Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 1.I.A.1, and 1.I.B.6

Important points in the lesson itself

  • The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by challenging to write sentences independently. Prepare them for this at the beginning of the lesson to generate enthusiasm and confidence. Example: "You did such a great job drawing and labeling in English that you are ready to write sentences today!"
  • ELLs may find it challenging to finish their writing within the time provided. Reassure them that they did an excellent job even if they did not have time to finish. If possible, consider providing additional time for these students to finish their work.
  • The book Tools is a multicultural text and provides opportunities for students to engage prior knowledge and home cultures. Provide space for students to share experiences related to the content of the text. Inform all students that they will read about different people and cultures from around the world, and that some of the things they do may seem different to us, but they are very normal for the people depicted in the text.

Levels of support

For lighter support:

  • Before providing sentence frames or additional modeling during Work Time, observe student interaction and allow students to grapple. Provide supportive frames and demonstrations only after students have grappled with the task. Observe the areas in which they struggle to target appropriate support.

For heavier support:

  • During Work Time C, distribute copies of the Cutting/Farming Tools student response sheets with sentence frames. Students can complete the activity as a cloze exercise. (Example: "The woman uses a ____ to ______.")
  • Re-teach words and sentence frames for asking and answering questions about tools. This will prepare students for their sorting work. Example: "What is the shape of (tool)?" "How do you use (tool)?"

Universal Design for Learning

  • Multiple Means of Representation (MMR): Throughout this lesson, embed support for unfamiliar vocabulary by providing explanation and visual examples. This will help students make connections and support comprehension.
  • Multiple Means of Action & Expression (MMAE): This lesson includes time for independent writing. First-graders have a range of writing abilities and executive functioning skills. Provide differentiated mentors by seating developing writers with students whose writing abilities and executive functioning skills are more developed.
  • Multiple Means of Engagement (MME): First-graders have a range of spelling abilities and sight words. As you model writing, emphasize process and effort as alternatives to external evaluation and competition. Demonstrate how to use the Word Wall, mini alphabet strips, or other environmental print to support the writing process. 

Vocabulary

Key: Lesson-Specific Vocabulary (L); Text-Specific Vocabulary (T)

  • categories, help, farm (verb), photograph (review), pound, razor, sort (L) 

Materials

  • Tools and Work Word Wall cards (teacher-created; one for each word; see supporting materials)
  • Tools and Work Word Wall (from Lesson 3; one to display)
  • "Learning Target" poem (from Lesson 1; one to display)
  • Tools (book; from Lesson 5; one for teacher read-aloud)
  • Sorting Protocol anchor chart (new; teacher-created; see supporting materials)
  • Types of Tools, Picture Set 1 (one per pair)
  • Unit 1 Assessment Speaking and Listening Checklist (for teacher reference)
  • Document camera (optional)
  • Cutting/Farming Tools model response sheet (one to display)
  • Cutting/Farming Tools student response sheet (one per student)
  • Cutting/Farming Tools sample student response sheet (for teacher reference)
  • Classroom Discussion Norms anchor chart (begun in Lesson 2)

Opening

OpeningMeeting Students' Needs

A. Working with Vocabulary: Tools and Work Word Wall (10 minutes) 

  • Gather students together whole group.
  • Show them the Tools and Work Word Wall cards. Have students massage their brains to get ready to learn some important words.
  • Show students the Word Wall card for razor. Say the word and show the picture.
  • Ask students to turn and talk:

“What is a razor?” (A razor is something you can use to shave.) 

  • Show students the motion of shaving with a razor by dragging the side of your pointer finger along your cheek, as if shaving a beard. Invite students to join you in the motion.
  • Encourage students to use the word in a sentence with an elbow partner. Have students repeat after you:

"I saw my father use a razor to shave his beard."

  • Show students the Word Wall card for help. Say the word and show the picture.
  • Ask students to turn and talk:

“What does it mean to help?” (Help means to make something easier.)

  • Ask:

“Does anybody know how to say help in the language you speak at home?” (ajudar in Portuguese) Call on student volunteers to share. Ask other students to choose one translation to silently repeat. Invite students to say their chosen translation out loud when you give the signal. Choral repeat the translations and the word in English.

  • Show students the motion of helping by offering a hand to help someone stand up. Invite students to stand up and join you in the motion. Have students sit down after everyone has done the motion.
  • Encourage students to use the word in a sentence to a partner. Have students repeat after you: "My bike helps me get to my friend’s house faster."
  • Show students the Word Wall card for pound. Say the word and show the picture.
  • Ask students to turn and talk:

“What does it mean to pound?” (Pound means to hit something in a forceful way.)

  • Show students the motion of pound by using your fist to bang the floor. Invite students to join you in the motion.
  • Encourage students to use the word in a sentence to a partner. Have students repeat after you: "I used a hammer to pound a nail into my tree house."
  • Show students the Word Wall card for farm. Say the word and show the picture.
  • Ask:

“Has anyone in your family had experiences with farms?” (Responses will vary.) 

  • Explain that farm can be a place but it can also be something that someone is doing, an action.
  • Ask students to turn and talk:

“What does it mean to farm?” (Farm can mean to grow and take care of plants.) 

  • Show students the motion of farming by pretending to pull up crops and shovel dirt. Invite students to stand up and join you in the motion. Have students sit after everyone has done the motion.
  • Encourage students to use the word in a sentence to a partner. Have students repeat after you: "He is farming the potatoes he planted."
  • Invite students to massage their brains again to make sure the words really stay in there. 
  • For ELLs: It may not be immediately apparent how shaving is related to cutting. Explain that when people shave, razors cut tiny little hairs, just like scissors do during a haircut.
  • For ELLs: Create hand gestures for cutting and farming so students can connect kinesthetic movement to language. Example: Open and close an index and a middle finger like scissors to signal cutting, and pretend to dig with a spade or shovel to signal farming.
  • For ELLs: Some students may not understand the connection between people helping one another and objects or tools helping humans achieve a goal. Use questioning to clarify the concept. Example: "My mother helps me do my homework. So how can pencil help me do my homework too?"
  • As you introduce new vocabulary, optimize relevance by prompting students to make connections to new words based on previous experiences. Example: "Give a thumbs-up if you have seen someone use a razor before." (MME) 

Work Time

Work TimeMeeting Students' Needs

A. Speaking and Listening: Sorting Photographs (15 minutes) 

  • Remind students that they have learned all sorts of new words and ideas about tools, and tell them they are going to learn more today. Invite students to chorally recite the "Learning Target" poem together as a class.
  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read the first one aloud:

“I can sort tools into categories.”

  • Focus students’ attention on the word sort.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“What do you think it means to sort?” (to separate things into special groups)

  • Focus students’ attention on the word categories and circle it. Tell students that categories are special groups in which everything in that special group is the same in some way.
  • Demonstrate by calling up two students with sneakers to stand on one side and two students without sneakers to stand on another side. Share with students that you have sorted these students into categories of "students with sneakers" and "students without sneakers."
  • Share with students that you are going to read aloud just one part of the text they read in the previous lesson: Tools. Encourage students to listen and look for categories as you read it.
  • Read aloud pages 7–13 of Tools slowly, fluently, with expression, and without interruption. As you read, show students the photographs on each page.
  • Remind students that different people have different ways of approaching work and that is why all of the tools are so different.
  • Direct students to the Sorting Protocol anchor chart. Tell them they will talk with their partners about their picture using the Sorting protocol, but first you will explain the expectations for the protocol.
  • Review the Sorting protocol, demonstrating each step with a student volunteer.
    • Point to the first step on the Sorting Protocol anchor chart. Tell students they will be assigned a partner. One partner will be partner A and the other will be partner B.
    • Point to the image of partner A holding a card on the anchor chart. Tell students that when all partners are ready and have received a group of pictures, partner A should choose one picture.
    • Point to the image of partner A asking a question on the anchor chart. Explain that partner A will show the picture to partner B and will ask partner B questions about howhe/she should sort the picture. Examples: "What category do the scissors belong in?" "Why did you put scissors with cutting tools?" "How do scissors work?"
    • Point to the image of partner B pointing on the anchor chart. Explain that partner B should answer partner A’s questions and place the card into the cutting or farming tools category he/she chooses. Allow the student volunteer to answer some questions and place the photograph.
    • Point to the image of the arrows on the anchor chart. Explain that once partner B has placed the picture, the pair should repeat the processing, but switch roles. This time, partner B should choose a new card and ask partner A questions, and partner A should place the card into the category he/she chooses.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“How will you show your partner you are listening?” (use eye contact; answer the questions he or she asks)

    • Designate partners. Invite students to decide who will be partner A and who will be partner B.
    • Remind students that they saw many types of tools in the book. Today, these photographs show cutting tools and farming tools, so one category is cutting tools and another category is farming tools.
    • Place a set of Types of Tools, Picture Set 1 in front of each pair of students.
    • Guide students through the Sorting protocol, using the steps on the Sorting Protocol anchor chart.
  • As students complete the last three pictures, circulate to collect information on the Unit 1 Assessment Speaking and Listening Checklist. In order to gather sufficient data, prompt each student to share in more detail.
  • Give students specific positive feedback about the conversations and questions you heard them using in pairs. (Examples: "I saw Maria using eye contact with her partner" and "I noticed Isaac asked a question with the question word where.")
  • Have students clean up their pictures and return them to you.
    • Point to the image of partner A asking a question on the anchor chart. Explain that partner A will show the picture to partner B and will ask partner B questions about how he/she should sort the picture. Examples: "What category do the scissors belong in?" "Why did you put scissors with cutting tools?" "How do scissors work?" 
    • Point to the image of partner B pointing on the anchor chart. Explain that partner B should answer partner A’s questions and place the card into the cutting or farming tools category he/she chooses. Allow the student volunteer to answer some questions and place the photograph.
    • Point to the image of the arrows on the anchor chart. Explain that once partner B has placed the picture, the pair should repeat the processing, but switch roles. This time, partner B should choose a new card and ask partner A questions, and partner A should place the card into the category he/she chooses.
  • Using a total participation technique, invite responses from the group:

“How will you show your partner you are listening?” (use eye contact; answer the questions he or she asks)

    • Designate partners. Invite students to decide who will be partner A and who will be partner B.
    • Remind students that they saw many types of tools in the book. Today, these photographs show cutting tools and farming tools, so one category is cutting tools and another category is farming tools.
    • Place a set of Types of Tools, Picture Set 1 in front of each pair of students.
    • Guide students through the Sorting protocol, using the steps on the Sorting Protocol anchor chart.
  • As students complete the last three pictures, circulate to collect information on the Unit 1 Assessment Speaking and Listening Checklist. In order to gather sufficient data, prompt each student to share in more detail.
  • Give students specific positive feedback about the conversations and questions you heard them using in pairs. (Examples: "I saw Maria using eye contact with her partner" and "I noticed Isaac asked a question with the question word where.")
  • Have students clean up their pictures and return them to you. 
  • As you prepare for the sorting activity, customize the display of information by using masking tape to create two clear "categories" on the floor. Demonstrate sorting by two categories, using students’ shoes (laces, no laces) as an example. Invite a few students to stand up and walk to the appropriate floor space based on the category of their shoes. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Provide alternatives to response strategies by using a graphic organizer (T-chart) with two categories (labeled "farming tools" and "cutting tools"). As the teacher or a partner holds up the photo card, invite individual students to indicate the correct category by pointing. (MMAE)
  • As students practice sorting with a partner, encourage effort and persistence by providing frequent, timely, and specific positive feedback to individual students. (MME)
  • For ELLs: To facilitate active listening, invite students to look and listen for the new vocabulary words they learned. Prompt them to give a thumbs-up when they recognize one of the words or tools.
  • For ELLs: Pair students with a partner who has more advanced or native language proficiency. The partner with greater language proficiency can serve as a model in the pair, initiating discussions and providing implicit sentence frames.
  • For ELLs: Before partner work, invite students to generate questions that will help them sort tools. Write their questions on a chart and invite students to use the chart as they work with their partners. Examples: Who uses the tool? What is the shape of the tool? How do you hold the tool?
  • For ELLs: To provide clear instructions and to foster autonomy, invite advanced or native proficiency students to briefly "fishbowl" the partner sorting process before students do so independently. As students are demonstrating each step of the process, point to the corresponding step on the anchor chart.
  • For ELLs: Ask students about this sentence from the text: "All over the world people use tools." Examples:
    • What do you think this sentence means?"
    • What does all over mean? Can you use it in a sentence?" (everywhere; all over the school students are learning)
    • "What is the world? What is the world in our home languages?" (the planet; el mundo in Spanish) Invite all students to repeat the translation in a different home language.
    • "So what does all over the world mean?" (everyone everywhere)
    • "Can you show me a motion that could go with all over the world?" (Students should move their arms around in a big circle.)
    • "What people?" (different people, lots of people in the world, everyone)
    • "Look at the phrase use tools. What are some examples of using tools?" (cooking with a spatula)
    • "Now what do you think this sentence means?" (People everywhere work with tools.) 

B. Model Writing: What Job Does the Tool Help to Do? (5 minutes) 

  • Gather students together whole group.
  • Direct students’ attention to the posted learning targets and read the second one aloud:

“I can ask and answer questions about key ideas using the photographs and text in a book.”

  • Invite students to announce another word for photograph using a "microphone response" (cupping their hands around their mouth to create a megaphone and saying their answer to the audience).
  • Using a document camera, display the Cutting/Farming Tools model response sheet. 
  • Point to the first picture under "Cutting tools" on the model response sheet. Tell students that you’d like to know more about the tool in this picture, so you will read about it in the index of Tools. Allow students to continue focusing on the picture while you read aloud the caption in the index for page 8.
  • State that you heard the name of the tool was a razor, so now the picture can be labeled. Think aloud as you model spelling razor next to the picture of the razor.
  • Tell students that this time, you need help listening for "What job does the tool help to do?" Reread the caption in the index for page 8.
  • Invite students to turn and talk:

“What job did you hear the tool doing?” (The razor helps the man shave.)

  • Think aloud as you model writing, "The razor helps a man shave" below the picture.
  • Tell students that they will do the next one with you at their seats. Transition students to their seats using a finger as a razor to shave their imaginary beards.
  • For ELLs: Customize the display of information by enlarging the Cutting/Farming Tools model response sheet with a document camera or replicating it in larger scale on a white board/chart paper. (MMR)
  • As you model sounding out the word razor, as well as the sentence, emphasize process and effort. Demonstrate how to use the Word Wall, mini alphabet strips, or other environmental print to support the writing process. (MME) 
  • For ELLs: Complete part of the sentence as interactive writing. Call on students to help formulate the sentence. Invite an intermediate proficiency student to the board to write part of the sentence with the support of the teacher and the class.

C. Independent Writing: What Job Does the Tool Help to Do? (15 minutes) 

  • Direct students’ attention to the Cutting/Farming Tools student response sheets and writing utensils at their workspaces.
  • Using Tools, point to the picture from page 13. Ask students to also point to the picture on their response sheet that shows a person farming. Circulate to ensure all students are pointing to the correct picture.
  • Tell students you are going to read the caption for that picture, and you want them to think about the following question:

“What is the name of this tool?”

  • Read aloud the caption in the index for page 13.
  • Invite students to turn and talk:

“What is the name of this tool?” (This tool is a hoe.)

  • Circulate to collect information on the Unit 1 Assessment Speaking and Listening Checklist. In order to gather sufficient data, prompt each student to share in more detail.
  • Invite students to label their picture with the tool’s name.
  • Refocus students on the picture. Tell them you are going to repeat this process with a new question: “What job does the tool help to do?”
  • Reread the caption, ask students to turn and talk, and circulate to collect information on the Unit 1 Assessment Speaking and Listening Checklist.
  • Invite students to write their response below the picture on their response sheet.
  • Choose a student to read his or her response aloud for the class. Give specific positive feedback to the student about the process s/he took to write the sentence.
  • Collect students’ Cutting/Farming Tools student response sheets. Inventive spelling should be accepted. Be sure to be aware of students’ independent phonemic abilities as you consider eachresponse. Refer to the Cutting/Farming Tools sample student response sheet (for teacher reference). 
  • Embed support for symbol-sound relationships by providing mini alphabet strips for reference at students’ workspaces. (MMR)
  • For ELLs: Read the caption for page 13 twice for each discussion prompt—once before asking the questions and once after asking the questions. This will provide students more time to process the text and to formulate their answers to discussion questions.
  • Consider seating arrangements that provide differentiated mentors by seating developing readers/writers with stronger readers/writers. (MMAE)
  • For ELLs: Remind students that they can look at the model if they are stuck. Invite them to use a sentence frame based on the model: "The (tool) helps _____."

Closing & Assessments

ClosingMeeting Students' Needs

A. Structured Discussion: Why Do We Need Tools? (10 minutes) 

  • Share with students that today they learned about two categories of tools: cutting tools and farming tools.
  • Focus students’ attention on the Classroom Discussion Norms anchor chart. Tell them that in a moment, they will discuss a question together and that you will be looking for students to follow the discussion norms they have learned and practiced.
  • If necessary, reread the list of discussion norms for the class, and quickly remind students what each term means.
  • Ask students to turn and talk:

“Why do we need tools?” (Tools help us cut. Tools help us farm. Tools help us do work.)

  • As students discuss, listen and collect information on the Unit 1 Assessment Speaking and Listening Checklist. Prompt students to continue sharing with each other.
  • If productive, cue students to expand the conversation by saying more:

“Can you say more about that?” (Responses will vary.) 

  • For ELLs: Provide options for expression and communication by prompting students to first respond in Think-Pair-Share with a sentence starter before inviting students to discuss as a whole group. Example: "We need tools because _____." (MMAE)
  • Optimize relevance by asking: "Can you think of another cutting tool (or farming tool) that wasn’t discussed today? Whisper to your shoulder partner." (MME) 

B. Reflecting on Learning (5 minutes) 

  • Remind students that the best learning happens when learners check to see how well they are doing and what they can do to be even better. Remind them that this is called "assessing" and that today, just as they did at the end of Lesson 5, they will do a Sit, Kneel, Stand protocol. Review as necessary.
  • Ask the students to silently think about how the class did with the discussion norms while you reread the Classroom Discussion Norms anchor chart.
  • Invite students to participate in a Sit, Kneel, Stand protocol.
  • Comment on how the class has rated themselves ("I noticed that half of the class thinks you followed the classroom discussion norms well today.")
  • Have students sit; cold call a student to share his/her thoughts.
  • Prompt students to clarify and justify their thinking with questions such as: "Why do you think the class did some of these really well?" and "What can our class do a little better next time?"
  • If productive, cue students to expand the conversation by giving an example:

“Can you give an example?” (Responses will vary.)

  • After a student is done sharing, invite that student to call on another student to share his/her thinking.
  • Encourage students to remember how they did so that they can do an even better job in the next lesson.
  • Activate background knowledge by linking each discussion norm (listen with care, look at the speaker, take turns speaking, and stay on topic) to an image (pre-printed, hand-drawn, or a photograph of individual children demonstrating these norms). (MMR) 
  • For ELLs: Build support for practice and performance by first reminding students: "Can you show me what it looks like/sounds like to kneel? That’s right! Kneeling is standing on your knees." (MMAE) 

Assessment

Each unit in the K-2 Language Arts Curriculum has one standards-based assessment built in. The module concludes with a performance task at the end of Unit 3 to synthesize their understanding of what they accomplished through supported, standards-based writing.

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